Microsoft PowerPoint - Population and Technology

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Unformatted text preview: Population Growth and Control Anth2430 Anth2430 June 1, 2009 It is revealed from the research that population growth was almost stable until the stone - age period which was almost age 10,000 years ago form the present time. Later the invention of agriculture and very recent industrialization has caused to bust up the growth of human population. Harris (1977) said that world population rose form 87million to 225 million in 4000 years between the appearance of first states and the beginning of the Christian era, and 4/ 5 population lived under the Roman, China, and India empires ( Harris 1977: 155). China’s rate of growth China According to Hans Bielensteins, from the Bielensteins from period AD 2 to AD 742 Chain’s over all period over population remained close to 50m, with maximum of 58 million and a minimum of 48m. China’s rate of growth remained 48m. rate close to zero for the better part of two millennia in responding to war, famine, population decline and again population growth. growth. Evolutionary Thoughts Evolutionary According to Darwin, one of the influential figure of evolution school of thought argued that ‘ a struggle of resistance struggle inevitably follow form the high rate at which all organic being tend to increase’ which ( Darwin 1859 in Davis1972: 222). Darwin Summer and keller (1927) said that keller (1927) population tends to increase up to the limit of the supporting power of living environment (land), on a given state of arts and for a given standard of living. arts Darwin also said that an organic being will try to increase in a geometrical ratio at some point of its life time and has to struggle for life which leads to suffer great destruction (Darwin 1859 in Davis 1972: 222). Evolutionary school Therefore, though some balance might be occurred due to natural disasters, predator – prey relationships, limited resource and prey diseases The population dynamics to the evolutionary school is double-edged. evolutionary edged. Malthus against Evolutionist Malthus against Malthus raised his arguments on the Malthus raised growth of human population in relation of food production. food Future happiness or crises of human are related with few causes and effect with is much beyond the power of individual and this cause is connected with population growth. Core argument Core Population growth tends to be increased geometrically and production of food tends to be grown mathematically. The food will be followed the mathematical ratio (1,2,3,4 …..) only if every things related to ..) production remain in a perfect conditions and which will never be happened in real context. However, in the same time the population will grow geometrically ( 1,2,4,8,……..) grow ..) Malthus also added that with in twenty Malthus also five years a particular number of population will be double. It means that if an imagined community has 11million people at present it will be doubling within twenty five years. twenty Malthus’s 25 years idea Malthus Population Growth Growth Present Present Population Population After 25 years After After 50 years After After 75 years After Population Population 11 Million 22 Million 22 44 Million 44 88 Million 88 Food/subsistenc e to support 11 Million 22 Million 33 Million 44 Million 55 Million After 100 years 176 Million After three centuries the ratio of population growth and the subsistence will be 4096 to 13. growth By Malthusian reasoning, population should be increase to the maximum number that environment will support, resulting in a maximum resources per person. By introducing technology the production of food might be increased to a certain degree but there is a point of diminishing, and there should be limit. Even in the year 1850 the total population of this world was 1billion and which was became 5 billion just in a hundred years. At present total population of the world is about 6.5 billion. Population Checks Population 1. The Preventive Cheeks :Preventive Cheeks 1. :Preventive is man’s reasoning faculties which unable him to is reasoning calculate distant consequences in coming days. As animal and plants do not expect form their offspring therefore, their growth is always positive. The human generally expect form the coming generation therefore, in thinking about future problem they might count and reproduce less offspring. less Positive Checks Positive Positive Checks: Positive The positive cheeks come form various corners, for example extreme poverty, bad nursing of children, great towns, war, epidemics, plague and famine which leads the positive cheeks in controlling the growth of the population. growth Population Control in Hunter and Gatherer societies: and . By practicing culture, rituals, responding properly with the ecology and maintaining balance relation with the ecosystem the hunter and gatherer population have been successful to keep their population in a shot number for long period of time. How? How? In the hunter and gatherer societies, nature of nomadic life style, child spacing, natural abortion, high mortality rate, lower fertility due to seasonal nutritional deficiencies, infanticide, disaster, acculturation, adaptation, and so on which are control mechanisms to keep populations form over exploiting resources. However, the main reason of these practices were not population control rather adapt rationally with the ecosystem. rationally Bushman Bushman Richard Lee said that the Kung Bushman mother will carry a child a total 4900 miles on collecting food, firewood, and camp. At a time no mother wants to have two or three babies. Moreover, babies cannot able to have hard food therefore they have to feed breast milk for long period of time. Therefore, prolong lactating period helps them to get less babies. In addition, prolong lactation did not allow them to save more fat and calories to be pregnant again. At the same time their diet pattern also help them to be freed. their The Yanomamo, a horticulturist tribe of Yanomamo horticulturist Brazil- Venezuela broader, generally keep Brazil Venezuela maintaining their male and female ratio as well as population growth though war, raids, feuding, marriage alliance, polygyny polygyny and female infanticide and practice of infanticide, primarily of female, regulated of having sex and reproduce. Plygyny enhanced disputes among the males in Plygyny enhanced response to women shortage and extended to wars which regulated male populations. Marriage alliance is a kind of mechanism which helps them to receive marriage able women and allies for warfare. There are some other hunting and gathering societies, where maximum possible fertility of 20- 30% living off spring are per female. In 20 30% addition prolonged lactation, physiological control, abstinence, abortion and infanticide also reduce another 15 -20%. Natural and infant 20%. mortality rate is 20-30% and 5% or more of the mortality 30% remaining adolescents and young adult are killed in fighting. It is also come up in the study that 5% or more per generation eliminated intra – and inter group killing and warfare. and Practice of infanticide Practice 18thc England as a state helped the 18 England situation by introducing Foundling Hospital which prime function was to kill babies authentically. authentically. Between 1756 and 1760, 15000 infants admitted in the hospital, and 4400 were survived in London survived How can population growth be controlled? controlled? Individual decision Individual State’s role State role Technology Technology Economy_ Infrastructure Collective consciousness Collective ...
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