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Unformatted text preview: Tragedy of Commons Tragedy
Hardin Hardin Question is why people are having more babies even thought they have not enough food to eat or shelter to leave. enough In poor countries, a family will rare extra children even they do not enough money (peasant in Java) (peasant Child birth and child rearing is cheap Child Engles against Malthus Engles against Malthus
Malthus theory is somehow encouraging Malthus theory the state to ignore the poor people the Engles: Engles The productivity of land can be increased The by application of capital, labor and science science Every grown man can produce more Every than he himself consumers than 1. 2. Land is limited but labor power can be increased to produce more increased What is impossible for science What Human are not only an organism rather a citizen, person or an individual in a particular social settings particular People will be exploited as labor under capitalism, colonialism – slave, cultivator Invisible hand Invisible
Adams Smith’s iidea of “ individual hand” dea Adams which means that an individual who intend which only his own gain also promote public interests accordingly interests But the idea of not working in the context of tragedy of the commons. of Freedom in a common bring ruin all Tragedy of commons occurs whenever an individual can increase his profit while other pay most of the cost. other Herdsman rational decision of taking extra one cattle will give extra individual gain but it will effect of over grazing and other herdsman lose. herdsman Solutions
Private Property Private Government Laws Government Ethics and Morality Ethics Universal deny of human rights Universal Responsibility – social arrangement Community based regulation Collective action Collective Kates: Population and consumption Kates
Demographic Transition: how birth rates and death rates are changing overtime is process is called Demographic Transition. process Not many women are wanting babies Not 120 million of married women in the third world countries want fewer child or space them better them Tragedy of commons? Tragedy Not having many Child? Not
Desired small family size Desired Economic decision Legal and social status of girl Legal Survival of children Survival Fertility control Fertility Population growth Population
Population of the developing world is expected about 10.2 billion by 2100. expected Contraception could reduce 2 billion Contraception Desired small family size to replacement fertility would reduce 1 billion fertility From today 4.5 billon to 7.3 billion in 2100. 2100. Consumption Consumption
For ecologists: consumption is obtaining energy and nutrients by eathing eathing something Sociologists: social symbol – status status through purchases certain kinds of products products 3Rs: reduce, recycle, reuse 3Rs: A satisfaction in a need well met. satisfaction Sublimation : Having more satisfaction with less to achieve some greater goods with Or. Is the diversion of energy from an Or. immediate goal to a higher social , moral or aesthetic purpose. or Satiation: no more needing more because there is enough there Both rich and power countries: making and selling things to each other, including unnecessary things, is the essence of the economic system economic A comparison of population and consumption
Population: a. Simpler, easier to Simpler, study study b. Well defined research c. Consensus terms Consensus trends trends d. Consensus policies Consumption: Consumption: a. More complex b. Undefined except b. marketing marketing c uncertain terms trends d. Threatening policies Source: Kates Source: Kates Over the history, societies control population not growing food rather killing extra population extra Consumption … controlled ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/08/2010 for the course ANT 2390 taught by Professor Halder during the Summer '09 term at University College Cayman Islands.
- Summer '09