Microsoft PowerPoint - June 10-Ecological and anthropological responses

Microsoft PowerPoint - June 10-Ecological and anthropological responses

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Ecological and anthropological approaches approaches Both are holistic and particularistic in their approaches to problem solving approaches Ecological: Ecosystem-based Ecological: based approaches approaches Accepted by international institutions, e.g.: Accepted Food and Agricultural Organization Food UN’s Millennium Development Goals UN Based on ecological roots: Based 1. 2. Tries to look at interactions iin entire systems Tries interactions n systems Seeks integration in decision making o o o Disciplinary Scale Social and ecological 3. Concerned with adaptation to change and Concerned change and uncertainty: uncertainty: Precaution Precaution Precautionary approach: ‘If an action or policy might cause severe or irreversible If harm to the public, in the absence of a scientific consensus that harm would not ensue, the burden of proof falls on those who would advocate taking the action’ action (Raffensberger and Tickner 1999) and Tickner Or, uncertainty is not an excuse for carrying on with a destructive activity with Principle: precaution Principle: Anthropology Anthropology Principle: inclusion Principle: Whom? Whom? Human responses: class, gender, caste, occupations.. occupations Organizations Organizations Networks Networks Co-management Co (De Young et al 2008: 28) Co-management Co An institutional integrative approach An Civil Society State Market Adapted from: (Apostle et al 1998) Co-management Co Premise: inclusion in decision-making will Premise: making improve ecological outcomes because: improve 1. Diversity of inputs improves: 1. 2. Knowledge base Capacity to respond to surprises 2. Will increase legitimacy of decision making Will and therefore: and o Compliance Origins of co-management (Berkes Origins management et al) et Explicit counter to Hardin’s neglect of Explicit neglect community/civil society dimension community/civil Gives the argument for community-based Gives based management management Communities have historically had capacity to effectively manage resources without the state state Thus, we should bring community into resource management resource Types of co-management Types Community Community control Community Partnership Partnership Advisory Advisory Communicative Communicative Cooperative Cooperative Consultative Consultative Informative Informative State (Berkes et al 2003: 202) The Global Fisheries Crisis The Evidence for the global fisheries crisis Evidence 1. Stagnation of global catches (FAO 2007: 6) The Global Fisheries Crisis The FAO (2005) The Global Fisheries Crisis Pauly et al’s contribution: Pauly 1900 Biomass of table fish (t·km2·y) 2000 (Pauly 2005) The Global Fisheries Crisis The Evidence for the global fisheries crisis Evidence 2. Fishing down food webs (Pauly 2005) The Global Fisheries Crisis The Evidence for the global fisheries crisis Evidence 2. Fishing down food webs o o o Global declines in mean trophic llevels from 1950 Global trophic evels to 1994: 3.35 to 3.08 (Pauly et al 1998) to Most desirable fishes trophic level 3.5 and above Most trophic Indicates overexploitation of top end of food web The global crisis in fisheries as a wicked problem wicked 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Different problem definitions Have no clear end point Embedded within other problems Each problem distinct Path dependency Responses to the global fisheries crisis crisis Universalistic: Universalistic: Biological Biological Marine Protected Areas Marine Economic Individual Transferable Quotas Individual Engineering Engineering DFE in fishing? DFE Responses to the global fisheries crisis crisis Particularistic: Particularistic: Ecological Ecological Consider the systemic interactions of humans and marine environment in specific contexts and Adaptive management – based on precaution Anthropological Anthropological Culturally-sensitive co-management Culturally Conclusion Conclusion Wicked problems mean that none of the individual disciplinary approaches will work alone alone Need integration of interactive governance Need ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 01/08/2010 for the course ANT 2390 taught by Professor Halder during the Summer '09 term at University College Cayman Islands.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online