Unformatted text preview: Horticulture
Adaptive system Adaptive May 22, 2009 Anth 2430 Meaning Meaning
“Garden cultivation” some reliance on some hunting, fishing, and collecting wild plants hunting, Horticulturalist depend primarily on domesticated foods. domesticated They raise plants in small plots using relatively simple methods and tools relatively Slash and burn technique / Swideen Swideen Households are highly self sufficient. Households Subsistence farmers can support more people than hunters and gatherers with low energy budget. low They do not use their total resource and energy energy Agriculture forced them to be more settlement and complex social organizations organizations Social organizations Social
Household is the basic unit in horticultural societies. societies. Production and consumption are practiced within household within Kinship ties support to integrate families, develop communities, and political organizations. organizations. Relationship with other communities may be peaceful, or warlike or in-between. peaceful, between. History History
About 9000 years ago people had begun to plant and harvest crops and to domesticate various animal species domesticate Middle East, China, Africa, IndiaMiddle Pakistan and many other places parallel Pakistan ways cultivation practiced ways History History
Subsistence farming emerged in Europe between 7000 and 5000 years ago. between At least 4000 years ago Africans produce millet, and other plants ( banana) Why agriculture Why
Population growth Population Pressure on resources Pressure Problem of food shortage When mortality, fertility limitations and migration were not sufficient to keep population within acceptance limits … Energy Use Energy
More labor than hunters and gathers but less than modern farmers less They use neither their land nor their labor to the fullest to Have much time to elaborate food preparation, ceremonies and other luxury items items Lower energy demand, less the group alters that environment alters Simple technology : without help of plow and animal and Simple hand tools: knives, axes, digging sticks and hoes sticks Method Method
Slash and Burn: fields are cleared, threes and brush are burned so that soil is fertilized by the ash fertilized Field use two or three years then left for about ten years about Knowledge of environment, soil, wind, and plants are key to their survival and Poly Culture Poly
Mixed crops Mixed Ecologically diversified , sustainable Modern Agriculture : monoculture Changes: Changes:
Social and political complexity increased Social Sedentism: Year around settlement Sedentism Increased population density. Increased Trade and exchange increased Trade Outsiders intervention started and connected to wider economy. connected ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/08/2010 for the course ANT 2390 taught by Professor Halder during the Summer '09 term at University College Cayman Islands.
- Summer '09