Microsoft PowerPoint - Green Revolution

Microsoft PowerPoint - Green Revolution - Green Revolution...

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Unformatted text preview: Green Revolution Green Revolution usually refers to the transformation of agriculture that Green usually agriculture that began in 1945. The idea was based on “ Modernization Theories”. The term "Green Revolution" was first used in 1968 by former USAID USAID director William Gaud, who noted the spread of the new technologiies and es said, "These and other developments in the field of agriculture contain the makings of a new revolution. It is not a violent Red Revolution llike that of ike Red the Soviets, nor is it a White Revolution llike that of the Shah of Iran. I call ike White Shah call it the Green Revolution." it Transfer of technologies to the traditional agricultural societies such as: Transfer es High Yielding Verities (HYV), Pesticides, Fertilizers, Irrigation pumps, High pumps, tractors and many more. tractors Seed – Fertilizer- water technology Counter revolution ( Harries) Counter Historical Perspectives of Green Revolution Green Population growth Famine and food crisis Famine New world order after WWII New Huge number of Scientific and technological interventions It was a part of new deal by the USA. It Controlling newly independent countries ( post colonial nations) nations) Multinational interventions and expansion of capitalism Multinational Profit maximization Profit Actors and Agencies who carries the good news carries Ford Foundation Ford Rockefeller Foundation Rockefeller World Bank World USAID USAID International Rice Research Institute International International and national Non Profit Organizations (NGOs) Organizations Multinational Corporations Multinational Followers Third world countries ( Mexico, India, Africa, Bangladesh, and many more Africa, Local Governments Local Academics, researchers, and agricultural workers workers Poor peasants Transfer of tecnology tecnology Import of Chemical-based Agriculture Import based India currently uses about 5 million tonnes of fertiliser, around 12 000 tonnes of fertiliser around tonnes of pesticides and tonnes of manufactures 55 varieties of pesticide, of which DDT, BHC and malathion malathion account for half of the output account (Verghese, 1990). Impact of Green Revolution Impact Initially Production was improved but declined again declined Prices of seeds, fertilizer, water, pesticides were increased so high Dependent on market, exchange rate, multinational corporation, and local elites multinational Peasants lost their control of production, marketing and consumption processes Ecological Problems Ecological Degradation of Soil Degradation Increasing Pest Problem Increasing Pollution of soil, water, air, and products Pollution Multiple crops to Mono- crop Multiple Instead of abundance, Punjab has left with diseased soils, pest infested crops, water logged disasters, and indebted and discontented farmers (Shiva) discontented Water intensive agriculture consume 85% of all fresh water resources fresh Social Issues Social Unemployment Unemployment Forced Migration to cities Forced Poor Peasants became landless wage workers Poor Class, economic, and political conflicts and violence violence Women become more vulnerable and jobless Women Rich farmers become more rich Rich Impact of Green Revolution in the West Revolution It is reveled in the research that a land less laborer in West Pakistan in the 1940s could earn less than $ 100 a year and it was Pakistan as remained same for last five years. While a land lord who owned 1500 acre land could make net profit $ 100,000 in his last harvest 1500 st ( page : 148). Same result was seen in Mexico after adapting Green Revolution in the sixties while 80% of total in creased agricultural product came from only 3% of the farms. On the other agricultural hand a land less farmer’s average number of work days fall form hand average 194 to 100, and his real income decreased form $68 to $56. Thus, 194 Green Revolution as a technological intervention has caused huge social side effect what Harris ( ---) called Counter Revolution social --- called because it is a process which helped the richer to grabs poor people’s lland. Technology is not neutral, powerless and very people and. much unequal. Impact in Bangladesh Impact Lost 300 verities of sweet water fish Lost Lost major sources of drinking water Lost Arsenic Contamination in ground level water Arsenic Embankments and dams created ecological disaster ( Flood Action Plan) Flood People lost control of natural resources People Became a market of international capitalism Became Marginal peasants become landless Marginal Enhanced class, Caste, gander, and Political struggles Enhanced Peasant movements and many more political crisis Peasant Arsenic Map of Bangladesh Bangladesh Arsenic Disaster in Bangladesh Bangladesh “ A shiny, grey, brittle element possessing both shiny, metallic and non metallic properties metallic Out of 140 million people, 70 to 80 million people drink arsenic contaminated water from tube wells 13 million people are directly contaminated by arsenic in Bangladesh arsenic Tube well Tube Arsenic caused health crisis crisis Skin Cancer due to drinking arsenic contaminated water contaminated Arsenic Crisis Women and Children are more vulnerable to face arsenic caused diseases in patriarchal society like Bangladesh Bangladesh Critical Look at the crisis Critical Political Economy of Development Political Power of Technology Power Our roles? Role of third world states? Our Co management? Co Political ecology of green revolution Political Market of technologies Market Social Inequality and Ecological Disaster Social ...
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