Microsoft PowerPoint - Ecology, Technology, and Human Adaptation

Microsoft PowerPoint - Ecology, Technology, and Human Adaptation

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Unformatted text preview: Ecology, Technology, and Human Adaptation Human Hunting and Gathering Societies Hunting and Gathering General Images: General Contrast to, or mirror of modern Society Contrast Romantic View: Childlike, Harmonious Romantic Savage view: Life as Miserable Savage Why do we need to study them? Why Help us to understand our ancestors’ behaviors, behaviors, for example, mating systems, leadership, and political behavior. political Gives us insights in the conditions to which Gives human population adapted over long period of time in the history. time We can learn from their cooperation and We ecological sustainability. ecological Who are Hunters and Gathers? Who People lived by hunting animals and gathering plants that grew wild in their habitat. plants 99% time they do not grew any food. 99% Social Organizations: small, flexible, kinship groups. groups. Highly mobile groups Highly Social relationship manage ecological risk Social They had deep ecological knowledge and used adaptive technology adaptive Small group size could make efficient connection to Environment connection Knowledge for alternative population control Knowledge Use local material which are mostly portable Use Original Leisure society (Shalines) Original Example Example Kung! ( sometime called Basarwa) : Gather Basarwa Gather nuts, vegetables, and fruits and hunt wild animals on a semiarid plain in South western Africa…. They are also called “ foraging” Africa They Inuit and Eskimo indigenous populations of Alaska and northeastern Canada support themselves by hunting and fishing. themselves Organization of Energy Gathering plants, seeds, nuts, fruits, vegetables. vegetables. Some totally depend on hunting and fishing Some Their dietary shifts from season to season ( Gugadja people ) Gugadja Gugadja People in Australia Gugadja People 126 species of plants were recognized and named for 138 economic, social and medical function function 70% of food consumed in the winter is vegetable vegetable Women and men contribute in the same subsistence, but their role vary seasonally. (Scott Cane’s study 1996). (Scott Foragers are live on “ Low energy budget”. It means that a minimum of energy is used to extract sufficient resources from the environment for survival. They use mostly their own muscles and little efforts in building shelter, traps, and clearing fields. shelter, They have nutritious food, have leisure time, and protect resources therefore their system is efficient efficient In contrast In Modern production system is “ High Energy High Budget” Budget In order to produce a sack of potatoes, we need considerable energy such as fertilizers and Pesticides, machines that planted, fertilized and sprayed harvest and so on. and The Miskito of Nicaragua wiped out sea turtle Miskito of in relation to capitalist market in Social Organizations Social Typically Foragers live in small, flexible groups that can scatter when natural resources become scarce and converge when resources again become plentiful. again Their kin network is expanded widely in order to move in and out of groups as resource fluctuate. Economic Exchange Economic Reciprocity : the systematic sharing of good and other goods, constant give and take among individuals. individuals. Obligation of reciprocity is stronger, and most important. important. Reciprocity plays a fundamental part in the actual production process. actual Three types of Reciprocity Three 1. General Reciprocity: No account are kept ( family members and kin groups). family 2. Balance Reciprocity: gift giving that clearly carries the obligation of an eventual and equal return. ( between more distantly related individuals, former trading partners, frineds frineds 3. Negative Reciprocity: get something for nothing or for as little as possible nothing Seasonal Migration Seasonal Seasonal migration is a key adaptive strategies for hunter and gathers in order to maintain balanced man- environment relationship. balanced What is the nature of the settlements they occupy? occupy? How frequently, if at all, do they move? How How are their decisions of movement affect their interaction between resource and time? Most foragers deal with variability in resources by moving people to the food rather by moving food the people. food These people adjust to the environment by making use of any local resource that is abundant… opposite extreme are societies abundant opposite such as our own. such One man hour of hunting brings in approximately 800 calories approximately One women hour of gathering brings approximately 2000 calories approximately Drought – resistant Mongongo nuts and 300 resistant Mongongo nuts nuts provide 1260 calories nuts Efficient System Together mongongo nuts and meat gave each mongongo nuts person 2140 calories and 92.1 gram meat – well over the US recommended duality well allowance 1975 calories and 60 grams of protein. protein. A man will spend five or six days hunting and then take a week or two off or rest. then One day a woman collects enough food to feed thee days thee ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/08/2010 for the course ANT 2390 taught by Professor Halder during the Summer '09 term at University College Cayman Islands.

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