Ch 3 Carbon Atoms and Molecules Rutgers bio 101 pg 5

Ch 3 Carbon Atoms and Molecules Rutgers bio 101 pg 5 -...

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Carbohydrates may combine with proteins to form glycoproteins, compounds present on the outer surface of cells other than bacteria. Some of the carb chains allow cells to adhere to one another, whereas others provide protections. Most proteins secreted by cells are glycoproteins. Carbohydrates combine with lipids to form glycolipids, compounds on the surfaces of animal cells that allow cells to recognize and interact with one another. Lipids They are a heterogenous group of compounds that are categorized by the fact that they are soluble in nonpolar solvents and are relatively insoluble in water. They consist of mainly of carbon and hydrogen, with few oxygen-containing functional groups. Lipids have little oxygen so they are hydrophobic. Important groups: fats, steroids, phospholids, carotenoids, waxes. Some used for energy storage, structural parts of cell membranes, important hormones.
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Unformatted text preview: Triacylglycerols are most abundant lipids. They yield more energy than carbs [twice as much per gram]. A moleculre of it consists of glycerol joined to three fatty acids. Glycerol is a three-carbon alcohol that contains three hydroxyl groups, fatty acid is a long, unbranched hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group at one end. Ester linkage is a convalent linkage formed by three condensation reactins; each reaction removes a water molecule and glycerol’s hydroxyl groups react with carboxyl group of fatty acid. First reaction yelds a monoacylglycerol; the second, a diacylglycerol; and the third, a triacylglycerol. During digestion, they are hydrolyzed to produce fatty acids and glycerol. Fatty acids are found in lipids and have even number of carbon atoms....
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