Ch 3 Carbon Atoms and Molecules Rutgers bio 101 pg 4

Ch 3 Carbon Atoms and Molecules Rutgers bio 101 pg 4 -...

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Polysaccharides It is a macromolecule consisting of repeating units of simple sugars, usually glucose. They are the most abundant carbohydrates and include starches, glycogen, and cellulose. They vary in properties due to their composition of different isomers. Starch is a polymer consisting of alpha-glucose subunits. The monomers are joined by alpha 1-4 linkages, which means that carbon 1 of glucose is linked to carbon 4 of the next glucose in the chain. There are two forms of starch: amylose [unbranched simpler form] and amylopectin [common form]. Plants store starch as granules within specialized organelles called amyloplasts. Cells of potatoes are very rich in them. When energy is needed, plants hydrolyzes starch, releasing the glucose
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Unformatted text preview: subunits. Glycogen is the form in which glucose subunits are stored as energy source in animal tissues. In verterbrates, glycogen is stored mainly in liver and muscle cells. Cellulose is the most abundant carbohydrate. It is an insoluble polysaccharide composed of many joined glucose molecules. Cellulose contains beta glucose monomers joined by beta 1-4 linkages. Humans lack enyzmes that digest cellulose. N-acetyl glucosamine subunits, joined by glyosidic bonds compose chitin, a main component of cell walls of fungi and of external skeletons of insects and crayfish....
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This note was uploaded on 01/08/2010 for the course BIO 01-119-10 taught by Professor D'arville during the Fall '09 term at Rutgers.

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Ch 3 Carbon Atoms and Molecules Rutgers bio 101 pg 4 -...

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