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Ch 3 Carbon Atoms and Molecules Rutgers bio 101 pg 1

Ch 3 Carbon Atoms and Molecules Rutgers bio 101 pg 1 -...

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Chapter 3 Carbon Atoms and Molecules Isomers They have the same molecular formula but different structures which means they have different properties. Structural isomers are compounds that differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms. Geometric isomers are compounds that are identical in the arrangement of their covalent bonds but different in the spatial arrangement of the atoms or groups of atoms. The designation cis indicates the two larger components are on the same side of the double bond. If they are on opposite sides of the double bond, the compound is designated a trans [across] isomer. Enantiomers are isomers that are mirror images of each other. Although they have similar chemical properties and most of their physical properties are identical, cells recognize the difference in shape, and usually only one form is found in organisms. Functional groups
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Hydrocarbons are insoluble in water and generally are hydrophobic. Polar and ionic functional groups are hydrophilic because they associate
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Unformatted text preview: strongly with polar water molecules. Hydroxyl group is polar because of the presence of a strongly electronegative oxygen atom. Carbonyl group ‘s double bond is polar because of the electronegativity of the oxygen; thus, it is hydrophilic. Carboxyl group’s polar because of the two oxygen atoms are so close to together. This causes the hydrogen atom to be stripped of its electron and be releases as a hydrogen atom. Thus, the ionized carboxyl group has 1 unit of a negative charge. They are weakly acidic. They exist as one of two hydrophilic states: ionic or polar. Amino groups are weakly basic because they are able to accept a hydrogen ion. The resultng ionized amino group has 1 unit of positic charge. Phosphate group is weakly acidic because it can release two hydrogen atoms. Sulfhydryl group is found in molecules called thiols. They can make important contributions to the structure of proteins....
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