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Lecture 8 - Lecture 8 DNA replication OUTLINE DNA the...

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Lecture 8 DNA replication
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OUTLINE DNA: the genetic material DNA structure Semiconservative replication Overview of DNA replication The replisome: a remarkable replication machine Replication in eukaryotic organisms Telomeres and telomerase: replication termination
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Computer model of DNA
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How to kill mice with pneumonia… Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection with S. pneumoniae can be fatal to mice Strains vary in their virulence S strains: so called for smooth appearance are highly virulent R strains: rough appearance…no virulence R strain If S cells were killed injection didn’t affect mice. If killed S cells were mixed with R cells…mice died! And live cells with S morphology were recovered…?
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“Transforming” R cells into S cells Figure 7-2 Cell debris from boiled S cells contains some transforming factor…but which constituent?
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DNA is the transforming agent Systematic analysis revealed that S DNA was the crucial factor We now know that circular plasmids encode virulence factors and are readily transferred between bacterium
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DNA is the genetic material of all organisms Figure 7-4 S (sulfur) doesn’t occur in DNA P (phosphorus) doesn’t occur in protein
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Structures of the four DNA nucleotides Figure 7-5
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Table 7-1
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The structure of DNA Figure 7-8 Helical structure Chemical diagram - unwound Highlights stacking of base pairs Highlights major and minor grooves
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Base pairing in DNA Figure 7-10 Pairing of purines (A and G) with pyrimidines (T and C) accounts exactly for the diameter of the double helix.
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Semiconservative DNA replication Single strand serves as a template for synthesis of the complementary strand As complementary bases are added the helical structure is re-established
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A replicating bacterial chromosome Figure 7-14 Autoradiographs are produced using isotopes. For direct detection of DNA tritiated ( 3 H) thymine (T) is often used. When T’s are added complementary to A’s in the template the newly synthesized strand is labeled.
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Figure 7-14a After one round of replication a single strand is detected by autoradiography. This is the newly synthesized strand.
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Figure 7-14b This image captures a labeled template in the process of being replicated…two strands are labeled in the theta ( ) θ structure as the newly synthesized strand is displaced
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Where is the label?
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