Lecture 19 - Lecture 19 Lecture 19 Gender, Race, and...

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ecture 19 Lecture 19 Gender, Race, and Ethnicity in the Labor Market I
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oadmap Roadmap rends in demographics over time Trends in demographics over time • Wage gaps across groups • The Male-Female Wage Gap – Possible explanations • Discrimination
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Shares of the Labor Force by Demographic Group: 1984, 1994, 2004, 2014*
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Mean Earnings as a Percentage of White Male Earnings , F l l i W k 24 Y Old i 2005 (b ) for Full-Time Workers over 24 Years Old in 2005 (by group)
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The Gender Gap Over Time (This is the median ratio. mean ratio in 2005 is about .7) Women are more likely To work part time so the gap In annual earnings is larger
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Hours and Experience (see hours by occupation among full time workers)
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Possible Explanations for Gender Gap ducation and age • Education and age – Even though women are currently better educated than men, this was not always true. As such, on average, female workers have less education than males. •A g e – Since labor force participation for women has increased over time, a larger share of female workers are young. • Hours worked – Women tend to work part time more than men. One would like to compare women to men of similar ages nd educational levels who all work full time and educational levels who all work full time.
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Female Earnings as a Percentage of Male Earnings, by d E d t i F l l i W k 2005 Age and Education, Full-Time Workers, 2005 Even within these cell a gap persists. Cannot just be age and education.
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Maybe they work in different occupations Even within occupations gaps exist Among year-round workers!
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Can Fertility Explain the Gaps? ine women have to leave the labor force Sine women have to leave the labor force to have kids, on average, they have fewer ears of work experience years of work experience. • In addition, they have a hiatus which could e harmful in a fast moving technical field be harmful in a fast moving technical field. • Betrand, Goldin, Katz (2008) look at
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This note was uploaded on 01/09/2010 for the course ILRLE 2400 at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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Lecture 19 - Lecture 19 Lecture 19 Gender, Race, and...

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