APReview1850to1900 - AP Review Notes The Civil War to the...

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1 Causes of the Civil War Compromise of 1850 Henry Clay "the Great Pacificator" from KY proposed the series of resolutions John C. Calhoun supported the south (died in 1850) – argued states' rights and defended slavery Daniel Webster argued with Northern Whigs that slavery should not be extended into the territories September, after 8 months, the compromise passed as separate resolutions in Senate by Senator Stephen Douglas Concessions to the North Concessions to the South California admitted as a free state Territory disputed by Texas and New Mexico to be surrendered to New Mexico Abolition of slave trade (but not slavery) in Washington D.C. Utah and New Mexico territories open to popular sovereignty Texas to receive $10 million from the federal government as compensation a more strict Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 The Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 "awakened a spirit of antagonism towards the south" alleged fugitives couldn't testify on their own behalf alleged fugitives were not entitled to trial by jury federal commissioners charged with enforcing the law would receive $10 if they returned an alleged fugitive, but $5 if they freed them – obvious incentive to return them to slavery anyone convicted of helping an alleged fugitive could be fined, imprisoned or both New Parties Develop the Know Nothings include nativist Americans "protect" America restrict immigration require 21 year wait for citizenship nominate only white, native born Protestants for all public office in 1854 they got 25% of the vote the "New" Republicans made up of all northerners (Whigs, free-soilers, and anti-slavery Democrats) raise wages establish transcontinental railroad raise tariffs to protect businesses bar slavery from all territories
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2 Chapter 20 – Drifting Towards Disunion (1854-1861) Crises Lead to a Showdown Lesson Aim: Why did the southern states secede from the Union? Causes of the Civil War 1. Compromise of 1850 2. Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 3. Stowe and Helper: Literary Incendiaries 1852 – Uncle Toms Cabin, Harriet Beecher Stowe 1857 The Impending Crisis of the South, Hinton R. Helper 4. The North – South Contest for Kansas, 1855 "Bleeding Kansas", Lecompton Constitution 5. Violence in the Senate, May 22,1856 "Bleeding Sumner" Preston Brooks, (SC) beats up Charles Sumner (MA) 6. Presidential Election of 1856 James Buchanan, Democrat, PA, elected President Republican candidate John Fremont Know-nothings candidate Millard Fillmore 7. The Dred Scott Decision March 6, 1857 by Chief Justice Roger B. Taney the decision declared that United States citizenship was for whites only – being on free soil did not make you free –essentially slavery could exist in any territory in the United States 8. The Financial Crash of 1857 banks and businesses failed and tens of thousands of people were out of work the southern economy wasn't effected as much as the north because their economy was based on agriculture not manufacturing and finance 9. Lincoln and Douglas Debate
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APReview1850to1900 - AP Review Notes The Civil War to the...

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