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1970thru00OL - The 1970s 1980s I Foreign policy issues...

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1 The 1970s & 1980s I. Foreign policy issues during Nixon's presidency A. Detente: shift in U.S. policy toward communism 1. Sec. of State Henry Kissinger traveled to China and the Soviet Union for secret sessions to plan summit meetings with the communists. 2. Nixon believed USSR and China clashing over their interpretations of Marxism could give U.S. opportunity to play off one against the other. 3. Nixon also hoped to gain their aid in pressuring North Vietnam into peace. 4. Nixon and Kissinger’s policies a. realpolitik: Nation should pursue policies and make alliances based on its national interests rather than on any particular view of the world. b. Balance of power i. "It will be a safer world and a better world if we have a strong, healthy, United States, Europe, Soviet Union, China, Japan – each balancing the other." – Nixon in 1971 ii. détente was the key to this balance. B. China visit, 1972 1. February 1972, Nixon and Kissinger went to China to meet with Mao Zedong and his associates. 2. Recognition of China a. U.S. agreed to support China’s admission to the United Nations and to pursue economic and cultural exchanges. b. Reversed U.S. policy of not recognizing the Chinese revolution in 1949. c. China officially recognized by U.S. in 1979. C. Soviet Union and détente 1. Czechoslovakia invaded (1968) by Soviets seeking to squash student reform movement. a. Czechoslovakia became one of strictest govt’s in E. Europe for two decades. b. U.S., preoccupied with Vietnam, could do little to aid Czech reformers 2. Nixon’s Moscow visit a. May 1972, Nixon played his "China card" with the Kremlin. b. Soviets wanted U.S. foodstuffs and feared intensified rivalry with a US-backed China. c. Chairman Leonoid Brezhnev approached Nixon about nuclear reduction talks. i. Nixon flew to Russia to sign the historic arms treaty. ii. Nixon’s visit ushered in an era of relaxed tensions called détente. d. Policy sought to establish rules to govern the rivalry between the U.S. and the Soviet Union and China. i. Resulted in several significant agreements. ii. Agreements significant as they were made before US withdrew from Vietnam. 3. SALT I (Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty) 4. Grain deal of 1972 a. 3-year arrangement b. the U.S. agreed to sell at least $750 million worth of wheat, corn, and other cereals to the Soviet Union.
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