1900-1945ReviewNotes

1900-1945ReviewNotes - The Progressive Era: 1900-1920 KEY...

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1 The Progressive Era : 1900-1920 KEY CONCEPTS: - The progressive movement was one major phase of liberalism in the 20 th century. - Grassroots & government reformers attempted to address the abuses and deficiencies at the local, state, and federal levels. - Important reforms were enacted by Congress to address abuses in business, the economy and the environment. - Women & African-Americans organized to improve their condition and status. Liberalism represents an alliance between the public and government to guard against and correct the abuses of capital. Equilibrium between public and business Reforms sought to a) alleviate short-term economic, political and social problems b) bring about significant change for the future. a) Economic – seek to control behavior of business b) Political – extend/protect political rights of the disenfranchised; make public officials accountable; attack corruption c) Social – seek to promote human/social rights of deprived groups. Liberalism in 20 th Century 1900-1920 ( Progressive Era ) – TR, Taft, Wilson 1933-1945 ( New Deal ) FDR 1945-1953 ( Fair Deal ) Truman 1960-1963 ( New Frontier ) JFK 1963-69 ( Great Society ) LBJ - Gov’t can be a positive force for change/reform to combat monopolies. - Gov’t can neutralize special interests. - Gov’t can instill order in public institutions. - Humanitarian work through the Social Gospel (settlement houses, Salvation Army, etc). Muckrakers exposed abuses (named by TR) of American society. Jacob Riis How the Other Half Lives Upton Sinclair The Jungle (Pure Food and Drug Act) Ida Tarbell History of Standard Oil (prosecuted 1911) Lincoln Steffens The Shame of the Cities REFORMING LOCAL/STATE POLITICS Political machines rampant in cities, creating patronage, nepotism, corruption (i.e. Tammany Hall and Boss Tweed) exposed by Thomas Nast (artist). Reforms at the Local Level : - Home-rule charters in cities, taking power from State - Some areas had public ownership of utilities. - power in the hands of an elected commission. - attempts at banning child labor - Min. wage/max. hours for women/city employees - Workmen’s comp./pensions for widows - Building codes/state inspections - Triangle Shirtwaist - Regulation of railroads, insurance, and grad. inc. tax. - Robert La Follette (Sen.) brought about direct primary for pres candidates, limits on campaign $$, investigation committees for problems in Wisconsin
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2 Under T. Roosevelt – TR campaigns on basis of “square deal”, managing interests of public vs. business. He was an active arbiter. - TR ends United Mine Workers strike , siding with miners against business, threatening intervention (1903). - 1903 : Dept. of Commerce and Labor created. Elkins Act
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1900-1945ReviewNotes - The Progressive Era: 1900-1920 KEY...

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