Chapter 16: The Crises of Reconstruction
Lincoln’s Plan: “10 percent Plan”
Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction, which outlined the path by which each southern state could
rejoin the Union.
A minority of voters (equal to at least 10 percent of those who had voted in the election of 1860) would
have to take an oath of allegiance to the Union and accept emancipation.
Then this minority could create a loyal state government.
Lincoln’s plan excluded some southerners from taking oath: Confederate government officials,
army and naval officers, as well as those military officers who had resigned from Congress or
from U.S. commissions in 1861.
All such people would have to apply for presidential pardons.
Also excluded, of course, were blacks, who had not been voters in 1860.
Radical Republicans in Congress, however, envisioned a slower readmission process.
: After at least half the eligible took an oath of allegiance to the Union,
delegates could be elected to a state convention that would repeal secession and abolish slavery.
To qualify as a voter or delegate, a southerner would have to take another oath of allegiance,
swearing he had never voluntarily supported the Confederacy; did not provide for black suffrage, a
measure then supported by some radicals.
the Wade-Davis bill (that is, he failed to sign the bill within ten days of
adjournment of Congress.
Senator Benjamin Wade and Congressman Henry Winter Davis were outraged.
Presidential Reconstruction: Andrew Johnson
Johnson was a Democrat added to the Republican ticket, president by accident.
Neither adopted abolitionist policies nor challenged racist sentiments.
He had his own political agenda.
Many Republicans were shocked when Johnson announced a new plan for the restoration of the South in
May 1865—with Congress out of session and not due to convene until December.
In two proclamations the president explained how seven southern states still without
reconstruction governments—Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South
Carolina, and Texas—could return to the Union.
All people who took an oath of allegiance would receive amnesty or pardon, and all their
property except slaves would be restored.
Oath takers could elect delegates to state convention, which would provide regular
Each state convention would have to proclaim the illegality of secession, repudiate state
debts incurred when the state belonged to the Confederacy, and ratify the Thirteenth
Amendment, which abolished slavery.
Took effect in the summer of 1865.
Some states refused to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment.