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Lecture 34 -- Biiofuels -- 2009

Lecture 34 -- Biiofuels -- 2009 - International Council of...

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1 International Council of Science Bob Howarth (Cornell University, USA) Chair, International SCOPE Biofuels Project November 18, 2009 Biofuels: Are they Environmentally Sustainable? BioEE2610 – Ecology & Environment Governments and industry focused on liquid biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel for transportation) Global climate change Energy security Rural development International Council of Science
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2 Governments and industry focused on liquid biofuels Global climate change Energy security Rural development International Council of Science Global energy use from all sources: 0.4% liquid biofuels 10-13 % solid biofuels (wood, charcoal) Governments and industry focused on liquid biofuels Global climate change Energy security Rural development International Council of Science Global energy use from all sources: 0.4% liquid biofuels 10-13 % solid biofuels (wood, charcoal)
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3 Comparison of price of solid fossil fuels (coal) and liquid fossil fuels (crude oil) over time. Howarth et al. 2009 Model T Fords were powered by ethanol; diesel engine designed for peanut oil
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4 Howarth et al. 2009 15 billion liters Howarth et al. 2009
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5 Howarth et al. 2009 Almost all sugar cane Almost all corn 2007 : United States -- 26% of corn to produce ethanol for 1.3% of total liquid fuel use. Brazil -- 60% of sugar cane harvest to produce ethanol for 15% of liquid fuel use. International Council of Science
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6 All liquid biofuels (ethanol, biodiesel) Biodiesel dominated by rapeseed in both EU and elsewhere. Many countries have ambitious liquid biofuel goals -- 10% or more of transportation fuels by 2020 to 2025. It will be difficult at best to meet these biofuel targets using traditional crops. International Council of Science
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7 Many countries have ambitious liquid biofuel goals -- 10% or more of transportation fuels by 2020 to 2025. It will be difficult at best to meet these biofuel targets using traditional crops. International Council of Science In 2007 only 1.8% of global liquid transportation fuels. Required 6% of all grains harvest globally (rice, maize, wheat), 8% of vegetable oil, and 28% of sugar cane. What about novel crops (ie, cold pressed oil from jatropha)? “Second-generation” biofuels, using cellulose as feedstock (from switchgrass, corn stover, wood, etc.)? -- cellulosic ethanol -- hydrocarbon fuels such as “biomass to liquid fuels,” or BtL International Council of Science Included in our analysis, but unproven and developing technologies, so much greater uncertainty.
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8 Environmental effects (including greenhouse gas emissions) vary, depending upon issues such as: Which feedstocks Which biofuel Where the feedstocks are grown
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