Lecture 39 ClimateChange 2009 forWeb

Lecture 39 ClimateChange 2009 forWeb - When: Mon. Dec. 14,...

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FINAL EXAM When: Mon. Dec. 14, 2:00 When: Mon. Dec. 14, 2:00 – 4:30 pm 4:30 pm Where: Warren Hall, B45 Where: Warren Hall, B45 Now Dec 14 Climate change: ecosystem impacts Climate change: ecosystem impacts and feedbacks Melting of the Arctic permafrost appears to threaten Siberian lakes Credit: Karen Frey, University of California, Los Angeles www.nsf.gov/news/mmg/media/images/ 3 Outline Outline • Climate change – The greenhouse – Trends in greenhouse gases – Trends in climate: historical, projected • Tundra Impacts & Feedbacks • Northeast U.S. impacts 4 Global Energy Balance (W/m Global Energy Balance (W/m 2 ) space atmosphere atmosphere land ocean 69% ABSORBED backscatter 3% 20% 9% 3% Water vapor, Water vapor, dust, CO 2 16% 16% 31% REFLECTED (albedo) 49% reaches Earth surface Energy In Shortwave 342 ocean 5 Global Energy Balance (W/m 2 ) space atmosphere land ocean 69% ABSORBED backscatter 3% 20% 9% 3% Water vapor, dust, CO dust, CO 2 16% 31% REFLECTED (albedo) 49% reaches Earth surface 69% Longwave Emitted by atmosphere Energy In Shortwave 342 114% Surface Radiation 95% Surface absorption 7% 7% Heat Heat 23% 23% ET (19% net) GHG + Clouds ocean 6 Greenhouse Gases? • Gases that allow heat from the sun to pass through, but absorb heat emitted by Earth CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O , CFCs , O 3 , and H 2 O • Natural part of the atmosphere – Without them Earth (and Mars & Venus) would be much colder
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7 Venus, Earth, & Mars all warmer than expected based on distance from Sun, based on distance from Sun, due to (varying) greenhouse effect due to (varying) greenhouse effect Atmospheric mass (x 10 21 g) 530 5.1 0.02 CO 2 96.0 0.036 95.0 N 2 3.5 78 2.5 O 2 0 21 0.3 H 2 O 0.05 < 1 0.1 Venus Earth Mars Earth has 1% the atmosphere of Venus; 200 x that of Mars! 8 Venus, Earth, & Mars all warmer than expected based on distance from Sun, based on distance from Sun, due to (varying) greenhouse effect due to (varying) greenhouse effect Atmospheric mass (x 10 21 g) 530 5.1 0.02 CO 2 96.0 0.036 95.0 N 2 3.5 78 2.5 O 2 0 21 0.3 H 2 O 0.05 < 1 0.1 Distance from sun (10 6 km) 108 150 228 Expected T ( o C, no atmosphere) -40 -16 -56 Venus Earth Mars Earth has 1% the atmosphere of Venus; 200 x that of Mars! 9 Venus, Earth, & Mars all warmer than expected Venus, Earth, & Mars all warmer than expected based on distance from Sun, based on distance from Sun, due to (varying) greenhouse effect due to (varying) greenhouse effect Atmospheric mass (x 10 21 g) 530 5.1 0.02 CO 2 96.0 0.036 95.0 N 2 3.5 78 2.5 O 2 0 21 0.3 H 2 O 0.05 < 1 0.1 Distance from sun (10 6 km) 108 150 228 Surface T ( o C) 470 16 -50 Difference ( o C) 510 32 6 Expected T ( o C, no atmosphere) -40 -16 -56 Venus Earth Mars Earth has 1% the atmosphere of Venus; 200 x that of Mars! 10 Earth: Changes in Earth: Changes in GHGs GHGs Ice Core & Modern Data CO 2 (ppm) N 2 O (ppb) CH 4 (ppb) CO 2 CH 4 Grey = warm interglacial periods N 2 O Prev. fig.
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Lecture 39 ClimateChange 2009 forWeb - When: Mon. Dec. 14,...

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