lec6 gmo09-1 - Alpha Zeta Fraternity Alpha Zeta Fraternity...

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Unformatted text preview: Alpha Zeta Fraternity Alpha Zeta Fraternity Proudly Presents: Ag Day When: Sept. 17th, 2009 (Rain-Out Date: Sept. 18th) Where: AG Quad Proceeds Benefit 4-H & Proceeds Local Farmers In Need Local ***Pre-Order Your Squares For Cow ***Pre-Order Chip Bingo At A Discount!!!*** Chip Contact: emb273@cornell.edu Contact: emb273@cornell.edu or see any member for tickets Activities Include: ­ Cow Chip Bingo ­ Barbecue ­ Ask a Farmer ­ Hay Bale Toss ­ Petting Zoo Applications of Genetic Engineering Applications of Genetic Engineering Most examples of GMO’s are in plant systems/agriculture Some medical/human examples, largely at the testing stage Medical Examples Medical Examples Gene Therapy Production of Insulin and other drugs Vaccines Gene Therapy Gene Therapy Insert engineered gene into cells to correct a genetic disorder First test case was in 1990 to treat Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disease (SCID) Disease was caused by a single gene mutation, the body did not produce an enzyme which led to destruction of white blood cells Gene Therapy for SCID Gene Therapy for SCID Doctors cultured cells from patient’s body, inserted functional gene for the enzyme, and used transfusions to re­introduce functional cells. Was successful, though patient needed repeated transfusions monthly for rest of life. Gene Therapy Gene Therapy Most tests have failed Body rejects vector used to introduce gene­ immune response Gene stops functioning, cells eventually die Genes often inserted into Somatic cells­ cells which are not passed on to next generation. Cure is not heritable. For trait to be inherited, must be inserted into For trait to be inherited, must be inserted into Germ line­ cells which will lead to production of gametes For this type of result, gene must be inserted at Embryonic stage­ stem cells Germ Line Therapy Germ Line Therapy Genetic modification at the embryonic stage of development Insertion or removal of genes, which are passed on from cell to cell. Done in the lab on non­human embryos since the 1980’s Potential treatment for cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy Germ Line Therapy Germ Line Therapy Human Germ Line Therapy banned by AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science) since 2000, until ethical issues have been worked out Will it be possible to alter genetic makeup to select for specific traits in humans? Vaccines Vaccines Take gene that induces immune response in humans, insert it into a harmless virus to create safer vaccines Edible vaccines­ incorporate protein to induce immune response into potatoes, bananas­ vaccinate individuals when eaten­ hepatitis­B and cholera Vaccines Vaccines Human and Mouse tumor fragments have been inserted into tobacco plants leading to a potential vaccine for non­Hodgkin’s lymphoma Organ transplants Organ transplants Transgenic Pigs altered to produce organs which are less likely to be rejected as transplants­ xenotransplantation Growing organs in tissue culture to be used for transplants­ relates to Stem Cell Research Cell transplantation therapy­ similar to gene therapy­ for spinal cord injury and Parkinson’s Animal GMO’s Animal GMO’s Transgenic Mice­ used for research into human diseases BioSteel­ gene for silk from spiders inserted into goat eggs­ goats developed then produce protein in milk which can be harvested and used as fiber­ lightweight and extremely strong Transgenic Salmon­ grow to market size in half thetime of non­transformed Animal GMO’s Animal GMO’s Farm animals engineered as well to be rapid growing, leaner, or produce useful pharmaceuticals Production of infertile individuals to control populations Insects­ sterile Transgenics or “Terminator Insects”­ bred to confer sterility to undesired insects that spread diseases, eat crops, etc. Milk and Cheese production Milk and Cheese production Chymogen ­ Engineered version of the enzyme Chymosin which causes milk to curdle­ higher levels present­ used in 60% of cheese production BST (Bovine Somatotropin) increases milk production in cows Plant Examples of GMO’s Plant Examples of GMO’s Herbicide tolerance­ potential to decrease spraying of herbicides Pesticide resistance­ decrease spraying of pesticides Stress Tolerance­ resistance to environmental stresses Altering quality of food­ nutrition, aesthretic quality ...
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