group141516post - Examining the Main Group What are their...

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Unformatted text preview: Examining the Main Group What are their electronic structures? Group 14 or Group 14 or IV IV A or 4A A or 4A Group 15 or Group 15 or V A or 5A A or 5A [noble gas]ns 2 np 2 [noble gas]ns 2 np 3 [He]2s 2 2p 2 [He]2s 2 2p 3 e]3s p [Ne]3s 2 3p 2 Basic structural aspects [Ne]3s 2 3p 3 Examining the Main Group What species will they form? Group 14 or Group 14 or IV IV A or 4A A or 4A Group 15 or Group 15 or V A or 5A A or 5A Inert Pair Effect via : transfer of an e- Ionic species filled ns 2 subshell A 2+ filled ns 2 subshell A 3+ A +4 isoelectronic to noble gas A 5+ isoelectronic with NEXT nearest noble gas A-3 isoelectronic with nearest oble gas UT reactive due to Anions? By transfer unattractive. Too many e-s to gain before stable shell. Reactive ia sharing of an e ovalent species noble gas BUT reactive due to charge y g organic carbocations? note 1 e- away from 1/2 filled subshell. AX 4 via : sharing of an e- Covalent species isoelectronic to noble gas AX 3 isoelectronic nearest noble gas A 3- A 3+ A n applying the basic structural aspects A n AX 5 Common oxidation states expanded octet A 5- A 5+ A 4- A 4+ Examining the Main Group Occurrence in Nature - higher up the groups covalent, lower down ionic Ag 8 GeS 6 Argyrodite Sir John Bennet Group 14 or Group 14 or IV IV A or 4A A or 4A Group 15 or Group 15 or V A or 5A A or 5A Opal SiO 2 .xH 2 O Galena PbS graphite Phosphorite Ca 10 F 2 (PO 4 )6 Lawes 1814-1900 Quartz SiO 2 Realgar AsS Stibnite Sb 2 S 3 Bismuthinite Bi 2 S 3 N most abundant gas What do you think will happen? Cassiterite SnO 2 78.1%, relatively inert. Triple bond! roup 14 or roup 14 or or 4A or 4A Examining the Main Group Elemental or MOST PURE form Group 14 or Group 14 or IV IV A or 4A A or 4A Group 15 or Group 15 or V A or 5A A or 5A and P considered non- etals C Si Ge Sn Pb r a (pm) 77 117 122 140 154 /cm 3 3 513 329 323 130 1 350 N and P considered non metals As Sb and bi considered metals or semi-metalloids (g/cm ) 3.513 2.329 5.323 7.130 11.350 IE 1 (kJ/mol) 1086 787 762 709 716 2.5 1.8 1.9 1.8 1.7 mp (K) 3830 1683 1210 505 600 anomalies of chemical interest Not as obvious through properties as through structure IE- hen most compounds are covalent N P As Sb Bi r a (pm) 55 111 125 145 154 (g/cm 3 ) 1.25 1.82 5.78 6.69 9.75 J/mol) 1402 12 47 34 703 When most compounds are covalent C considered non-metal Si Ge Sn and Pb considered etals or semi etalloids Looking at trends for the group of elements .....
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group141516post - Examining the Main Group What are their...

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