209_14 - GLGY209: Last lecture Principles of stratigraphy...

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GLGY 209: INTRODUCTION  TO GEOLOGY
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Last lecture – Principles of stratigraphy Layer and facies termination; Sedimentary structures (mudcracks, ripple-marks, burrowings, etc); Normal and inverse strat succession; Relative age by superposition; Conformable and non-conformable succession; Disconformity, angular unconformity and nonconformity;
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Last lecture – Principles of stratigraphy Concept of hiatus; Principle of inclusion; Principle of cross-cutting relationships between igneous rocks.
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Fossil Ranges Fossil ranges of various fossils.
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Correlation by Means of Fossil Ranges Layers containing the same index fossil can be correlated from one section to another.
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Correlation by Means of Volcanic Ash Deposition of a volcanic ash layer is regarded as a extremely short-timed geological event. Presence of volcanic ash can be used in correlation despite the lack of index fossils or other methods.
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Stratigraphical correlation  There are 5 kinds of correlation in stratigraphy:   Lithocorrelation  (based on lithology or rock types);   Biocorrelation
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