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CDFS Article - 'diScrimination leadsto increases" I II...

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Unformatted text preview: 'diScrimination- leadsto- increases: " I II IIyouth's Inotiv'alibI to; do well'in school, which in tu1n 7"1'eads to increases in academic performance-In this same ple, anticipated future discrimination;appeared to moti— -' vate the youth to do their very best so that they would be 'maximally equipped to deal with future discrimination I (Eccles, 2004). In contrast, daily experiences of racial discrimination-from their peers and teachers led to de- clines in-Ischooi engagement an‘d'Confidence in one's aca-. demic competence and grades, along with increases in depression and anger. In a study of Asian, Mexican, Central and South American immigrant high school stu- '1: dents growing. up'in major metropolitan areas of the ' I United States,IPortes and Rumbaut (2001) found that a majority of youth in their sample reported feeling dis— msourc'es of‘ this perceived discrimination were White 'IiasIsIniateIs, teachers and neighbors. Such experiences I were associated with greater feelings of depression _ mong- the youth. In a sample of Mexican American high I school students in California, perceived discrimination in school was found to have a strong, negative multivari— ate relation to school belonging (Roeser, 2004b). wong et al-. (2003) also found that a strdng, positive 1 negative effects. These results suggest a possible buffer— I mg effect’of ethnic identity on'the potential debilitatini' ext of shared- meaning- around iss1'1es of: discriminauon . that assist group members In defusing its potential nega- The Socialization of Motivation: Influences-of School/Iiistructionafcontext an Amer lcan- criminated at school and in other settings. T he major ' IAfncan American social identity helped to buffei these ffec'Its of perceived discrimination, perhaps because a I 911g connection to one’ s ethnic group prov1des a con! tIivIe impact on the' Self and therefore on motlvation to and their colleagues have argiied- that a school levelem~ -- I - psychological environment that affects students‘ aca- highest achieving students,_class rankings on report —-————————-——-———__._——_. , of;varit)us abilit levels make relative abilit 1, competi- ,_ _ , II II . create a' school-level ability rather than mastery/task .IGreat City 51211611113”; Transitions _1nally',. schools that serve these opulations re less l1l<ely than schools serving more advantaced pop I I I I lations‘ to offer either high quality remedial services or advanced -cou1ses and courses that facilitate the acquisiI-II I tion of higher order thinking skills and active loathing. strategies. Even children who are extremely motivatedE ' may find it difficult to per f01 111 well under these educa- tional ciicumstances These, facts highlight the impor- tance of focusing on' the' conjoint influences that- poverty, discriminati_on,_ and debilitating work condi~ tions for I(Iofte1'1 under qualified) teachers can have on the educational motivation achieve_m';ent. and attain.- ments of African and Latin American youth. School Level Characteristic"; and Student Motivation II ' Researchers suggest that variations at'tlieschool leve'l 1'11? the climate and‘general expectations'regarding student potential affect the development'of both- teachers and students in very fundamental ways '(e' ,‘Bandura, 1997;. Bryk, Lee & Holland 1993; Darling-Hammond 1997;. V. E Lee & Smith 200:1. Mac. Iver, Reuman, _&' " 1995; NRC, 2004) F. ' 'pII1e BrykI e al ' pdinted out ho a. ‘ Iatholic sc II mentally different from the culture inmost public schools in ways that positively affect academic motive!" tIIiIon and achievement. II’II-‘his culture (school climate) val; phasis on different achievement goals creates a school dernic beliefs, affect 'and behavior -(e.g ,Maehr & Mido gley', 1996; Midgley, 2002). For example, because schools use of public honor rolls and assemblies for' the ___._.._____._._.______ l i cards‘;-’ar'1d differential currlcular offerings for students ion“ and socialcomparison salient; these ractices can focus; In contrast, schools can promote a schooi-ievel 980 Development of Achievement Motivation school .(e.g.'-,I" nonattendanc rune misconduct) 11d .‘lCEl- focus on discovery, effort and im demic master ' s‘ng schocil-wide recognition ef- forts on academic effort and improvement as well .as'on a wide range of competencies that include as many stu- dents as possible and by implementing practices that em-z hasize learning and task mastery such .as block scheduling interdisci linar curricular teams, and co- Wfinn, ' 1989; ,s'Fiqueira- IMcDoInough, 1986; RIoeser eta ., 1998).- - Academic Tracks/Curricular Differentiation Curricular tracking (e.D 0. ,college track course sequences I, versus general orlvocational education sequences) 1s an- " ' i ‘ V' ha quit I & Page, 1992). D1fferent1ated cIuIrtcul -'.enceS: -adolescents" school experiences in two important "tracking determines the LIality and kinds riculum tracking involves how- stude 5 get placed 111 dif—. ferent classes and how difficult it is for students to move. mane—111113116 a- certain decree the nature of— social , ' '- 'elationsh1ps that youth-form in school (FuliUni,.Eccles, & Barber 1995) Desplte IyearsI- of research on the impact of. tracking practices, few strong and definitive 'anSWeis have emerged. The results vary depending on the outcome as— ,: _tsessed, the group studied,- the length of the study, the control groups used for comparison and .the specific na— aftei high school. Minority youth, particularly African Wspanic boys, are more likely to be as- signed to low ability classes and nonctJilege bound cur- - ' . I. I' P68 ricular tracks than other groups; furthermore, many of -' ' '- ture'. of the context in which these practices are manifest. The situation is complicated by the fact that conflicting these youth were sufficiently competent toIbe placed 111 Chit " hypotheses about the likely direction and “the magnitude higher ability level classes (Dornbusch,1994; ' 011 Opt: of. the effeCt' emeroe dependmo on- the atheo1etical lens et £11., 1992). ' ' , ' ‘- 1011. one uses to evaluate the practice. The best justification . . - I . We for these practices derives from 2W Ertmcurrrculan Activn‘tes ' i I " ity fiapgspggtil: tu cats are more motivated to learn if Schools differ 1111- the extent to which they provide a vari- can the mateIIiai can be. adapted to their current competence ety of extracurricular; activities for their students. Re— 3111 leVel. There is some- evidence consistent with this. per- curricular activities has documented 8 R211 . spective for children placed in. high ability classrooms positive link betWeen' adolescents extracurriCUlar 3C_tiVI‘_' Ira: high within- class ability g10ups,-and college tracks ities and hich school GPA. strono school on aoementii , - .dur -(Fuligni_ et 211., 1995; _Kulik. & Kulik-198.I7;PalIlas_et £11., and bio ed c ' 1s itations (see Eccles 6131111331; . 3513 1994) The results for adolescents placed in low ability 1999; Holland & Andre;1987) This work has also doc - - ant- 3W umented the protective value of exttacui iicular activity ear and large, W is pattici ation i inn MW . lief " group of students they are negative primarily because volvement _in delinquent and other risky behaviors (Flig- ' ”"1 t ese adolescents aie typically provided with inferio1 Mahoney &Cau 11s, 1997; McNeal, 1995) IParticipflIIOT'II (PEI 'cational exper-ience _ ,.. . . - in sp01 ts in particulru, has been linked to lower 1116117“ _ _ 131i ' ' ‘ 1992 Palias et Ials, 1:994). Lovv track hood of school dropout. and higher 1ates of college atten' - .' . . 9ft ' 999{MCN531 " the ._nee - iiiow. 'achrevmcr and blIuIe- 4120113 .,.........-.................-.W....,.........,,...... .... I -mw....m.-............. . ' ‘ _ -WWW..-,... 1 in We! 1. . ility _Jeer :ric- llfiCl 116111. ,y in ' I end- :‘rom - elin- . E: of isio-' who Cur: 7' idli- TllOVC - mpe- nade. :hool :ence ids 111‘- .udent Trican 1e.Ias-I I 1cuIrI-: [my 01" . .6 ‘ed in male athletes (Holland I& Andre.- 1.987); These effects“ likely reflect the impact of extracui ricnlai' activaties Ion , Isi'udents sense of belonging 1n the school. as well as on 3.1 [he inc1eased likelihood of participation leading to good relationships with particular teachers. School Transitions and Motivational Development we reviewed earlier normative developmental wo1k showing that many aspects of children s motivation de- = 1121111 asthey go through school. These declines are most IIImIIaIIr ed as children make ma'or school transitions e.g., from c emeiitary school into middle or ' ' ' hiUh school an t e11 again i high sc in this section, we I biiefiy review the research focused on explaining these developmental declines. 11);: into and throughElementary school EntranceII into kindergarten and then the transition IfrIoIni'kindergarten to first grade introduces several sys— tematic changes in children’s social worlds (see Pianta, RinnnI-Kaflufman & Cox, 1999). First, classes are age stratified making it 1th111 age ability social comparison IrtIsI” begin. Third, formal ability grouping be— ally with reading group assignment. Fourth, IlIiouIld impact IchilI’dreIriI s ImotiyationaIl- devel- ' rita et al., 1999). Unfortunatelw The Socialization of Motivation: Influences of School[InstructioIiialIiCbntexts--and..School.TraIn'Is'iItion'Is Instead most of; the research- on the e'arlIyIIelemeiIitar ’ ' ' I I itterentesmth link between children s; e'iily IsIIthIoIoI experiences and their subsequent development. This, research suggests significant IIong- term consequences of children’ s experi— ences in the ear 1y school yea1'I's;,pa"i.ItIiIcu1aIrI1y expei iencesi associated with ability-grouping and within-class differs entiai teacher tieatment. For example, teachers use a Iva- riety of infoririatiIoi1.-to assign first graders to reading gioups including tempeiamental charaI'cte'iistIic'sI like inII-‘ teiest and persistence, race, gender, and. social class (e.g., K. L. Alexander, Dauber, &E11twisle, 1993; Bro- phy & Good, 1974). K. L. Alexander Iet '31”. (1993) demonstrated that differences in first grade reading group placement and teacher- student interactions preII—. dict subsequent motivation and achievement even after- controlling; IrorI initial differences in readin I_tence.- Fuithermore Ithese effects are mediated by both" I ‘ I' differential instruction and the amplifying impact of ability group placement on parents’ and teachers’ views of the children’s abiIiities,.Ita1eInts-,-IanId motivation (Pal: - las et al., 1994). .. . .. I. These findings are important because tIheyII point thI early school years as critical IfOr subsequent school I I IIare also important becaus ' I attention to t e potential role of elementary so 00 5 thIII reproducing. .the economic stratification that: exists in our society. Elementary schools are located in the com- II11IiIIinI' iesI they seiI've;II thus there can be" IrI'eat Ivariations II I j I ' in. the- populations the curritmliim offered and ItIliIeII resources available, at I different schools. Interestinoly inI IIaInalysIIesII oIfI datII from I I ' their Baltimore Seliool Study, Entwisle and Alexander (1999 found hat; low. IISEIZS and high ISE ;. summer IwhenI school is not in sessron with the low SIIES. I - _,ch‘i_ldren_ losing more around in what they are able to do over the summer than the high SES children. _W . I'III'ewed. earlier the research showing that many WWY PSGhfiDLYEars. REQPQI‘I‘hnz-c Ami-m. .1“ a ...,.-1. -.._ . . 7- .. . Wigfield, A., Eccles, J. S., Schiefele, U., Roeser, R. W., & Davis—Kean, P. (2006). Development of achievement motivation. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Editors—in-chief), N. Eisenberg (V01. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (6th ed. ). Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personality development (pp. 933-1002). New York: Wiley. ‘ 'IsiIsi- 0- . compe- g. 5 2 mucus“.Nam-N.”WNWH,_MW......Wu...“.0wvmum.mimwmw.mmwmmau ...
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