2. Ch1_Sept_14_posted - 9/14/09...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: 9/14/09 (Gene4cs…in
case
you
forgot.) 
 •  Course
Director:
Dr.
Tamara
L
Kelly
 

 
 
Office:
108A
Farquharson
 

 
 
Phone:
x
22972

 

 
 
Email:
tljkelly@yorku.ca
 •  Office
hours:
by
appointment
 Welcome
to
BIOL
2040!
 
 Welcome
to
BIOL
2040!
 
 •  When
emailing
me…
 •  Put
your
name,
student
#,
&
BIOL
2040
in
subject
line
 •  Saluta4ons
are
always
nice,
as
are
goodbyes…
 •  Give
me
at
least
24
hrs
to
respond
 1 9/14/09 Welcome
to
BIOL
2040!
 
 •  Course:
3
lectures
per
week
+
lab
 •  Lectures:
Mon/Wed/Fri

8:30
–
9:30
am
ACE
102
 •  Combina4on
me
lecturing
and
you
discussing
 •  Will
use
clickers
(start
Sept.
21st)
 •  Labs:

they’re
different
this
year…
 BIOL
2040
Evalua4on
 
 Please see course policies on Moodle 2 9/14/09 Welcome
to
BIOL
2040!
 
 •  Things
you
need:
 •  Text:

Gene4cs:
From
Genes
to
Genomes
(3rd
ed.)
 by
Hartwell
et
al.,
(2008)
 •  Recommended,
but
not
required:
Study
Guide/ Solu4ons
Manual
to
Gene4cs:
From
Genes
to
 Genomes
(3rd
ed.)
 •  Clicker
–
for
class
ques4ons/quizzes
 •  (might
be
used
in
labs

will
be
told
in
advance)

 BIOL
2040
Clickers!
 
 •  Need
to
purchase
&
register
your
clicker
by
 Sept. 16th. •  all
instruc4ons
online
–
see
clicker
informa4on
 document
on
Moodle
 •  Can’t
have
2
people
with
same
clicker
id

NO
 marks
for
both
individuals
 3 9/14/09 The
clicker
response
pad
 TurningPoint
ResponseCard®
XR
 LCD
screen
for
 feedback
 Menu
&
Enter
buions
for
 adjus4ng
clicker
sejngs
 YES
&
NO
(Down
&
Up)
 Numbered/leiered
 buions
for
answering
 ques4ons
 [ Most
of
the
=me,
you
won’t
need
the
“Menu”
buDon.
 To
answer,
usually
just
press
leDer/number.
 Welcome
to
BIOL
2040!
 
 •  Website:
 •  Moodle
(hip://moodle.yorku.ca)
 •  Where
announcements
will
be
made
for
both
lectures
 and
labs.


 4 9/14/09 BIOL
2040
Labs
 
 •  You
MUST
aiend
the
lab
sec4on
in
which
you
are
REGISTERED
 •  If
you
want
to
switch
labs,
you
must
find
someone
to
switch
 with
(see
Moodle
discussion
thread)
 •  Temporary
lab
switches
–
you
MUST
contact
Gesseca
Gos,
the
 TA
Coordinator
(biol2040@yorku.ca)
 •  must
have
wriien
permission
to
get
into
another
lab.
 BIOL
2040
Labs
 
 BUT
what
if
I
miss
a
lab
because
I’m
*cough*
sick?
 1.  Contact
your
TA
immediately.
 2.  Contact
Gesseca
(TA
Coordinator)
immediately
with
your 
 doctor’s
note
in
hand
–
must
be
provided
within
ONE
 DAY
of
your
absence
to
make
arrangements
for
a
make‐ up
lab,
if
space
is
available.
 3.  You
may
not
perform
more
than
2
make‐up
labs
during
 the
course.

 5 9/14/09 My
part…
 •  I’ll
talk
with
you
about
gene4cs
and
evolu4on.
 •  Yep,
you
might
have
seen
it
before,
but
it
doesn’t
mean
 you
actually
understand
it.
 •  Memorizing
details
is
different
than
conceptual
 understanding.
 •  That’s
my
job
‐
to
help
you
move
from
one
mode
 of
learning
to
another
higher
level
of
learning.
 •  Grading:
I
don’t
grade
on
a
curve
(almost
no
one
in
 Canada
does…)
 Resources
to
help
you
succeed
 •  The
libraries…
 –  Steacie
Science
&
Engineering
Library
 •  YU
Learn:
hip://www.yorku.ca/yulearn/
 –  –  –  –  Library
Research
 University
Skills
‐
4ps/workshops
 Wri4ng
Skills
‐
4ps/workshops
 Subject/Discipline
Resources
 •  Bethune
College:
hip://www.yorku.ca/bethune/events.html
 –  Workshops
&
Science
Seminars
(Darwiniana)

 •  The
Gym!!
 •  Social‐ness
‐
get
out
and
meet
your
fellow
students!
 6 9/14/09 Penicillin
–
the
‘wonder
drug’
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penicillin Evolu4on
of
penicillin
resistance
 •  1942
–
brought
to
public

 •  •  Ini4ally
to
treat
infec4ons
of
Staphylococcus
aureus
 Quickly
used
to
treat
all
sorts
of
diseases
 •  1946
–
widespread
use
 •  •  14%
of
Staphylococcus
strains
in
pa4ents
were
resistant
 1950
–
more
than
50%
of
all
Staphylococcus
strains
in
pa4ents
 were
resistant
 Many
strains
of
bacteria
develop
an4bio4c
resistance.
 How
does
this
happen?
 7 9/14/09 Global
Travel…
 •  Human
influenza
A
(H3N2)
 •  Regional
epidemics

outbreaks
worldwide
 •  Evolu4onary
stable
for
3‐8
yrs
 •  Periodic
changes
(punctuated
evolu4on)
 •  Typically
in
SE
Asia

changes
very
liile
on
trip
around
the
 world.
 Is
this
good?
 1. Yes
 2. No
 Evolu4on
=
the
core
of
biology
 “Nothing
in
biology
makes
sense
except
in
the
light
of
evolu4on.”
 
 
 
 
 
‐
Dobzhansky,
1973
 Physiology Genetics Medicine Behaviour Evolution Ecology Molecular Biology 8 9/14/09 Gene4cs
:
the
science
of
informa4on
 What
is
inherited?
 How
is
it
inherited?
 Where
does
heritable
varia4on
come
from?
 How
do
heritable
traits
change
over
4me?
 Gene4cs
:
the
science
of
informa4on
 Why
do
we
care
about
gene4cs?
 
medicine
 
agriculture
 
conserva4on
 
evolu4on
 
understand
biological
organisms
 9 9/14/09 Gene4cs
:
the
science
of
informa4on
 Fer4lized
 egg
 development
 adult
 Gene4cs
:
the
science
of
informa4on
 DNA
–
the
informa4on
molecule…
 10 9/14/09 Biological
func4on
arises
primarily
from
proteins
 •  Characteris4cs
of
organisms
 •  Affected
by
gene4cs
 •  Affected
by
environment
 •  Affected
by
a
combina4on
of
the
2
 Model
Organisms
 •  What
are
they?
 •  Why
use
them?
 11 9/14/09 Model
Organisms
 •  Whoa!
They’re
just
like
us!!
 Model
Organisms…
 •  What
makes
a
good
model
organism?
 1.  




 2.  



 3.  



 4.  



 12 9/14/09 Using
model
organisms
to
study
gene
func4on
 Folic acid DHF Thymidine Protein THF Methionine Substrate dTMP Purines e.g. DNA SAM SAH Methylated Product dUMP 10-Formyl-THF 5,10-Methylene-THF MTHFR 5-Methyl-THF 5-MTHF Nucleic Acid Synthesis Homocysteine Methylation Reactions 13 9/14/09 Folic acid DHF Protein THF ↓Methionine Substrate dTMP e.g. DNA ↓SAM ↑SAH ↓Methylated Product dUMP ↑5,10-Methylene-THF MTHFR ↓5-Methyl-THF Nucleic Acid Synthesis ↑Homocysteine Methylation Reactions Model
Organisms
 •  Can
put
gene
from
one
organism
into
another
 •  How
does
that
gene
func4on
in
a
new
environment?
 •  Defects
in
same
gene
(although
DNA
sequence
might
not
be
exactly
 iden4cal)

same
condi4on
 •  Pax6
–
ini4a4on
of
eye
development?
 14 9/14/09 How
genes
arise
by
duplica4on
&
divergence
 Model
Organisms…
 What
makes
a
good
model
organism?
 •  Self‐fer4lisa4on
 
















vs. 
 




Cross‐fer4lisa4on 

 15 9/14/09 Model
Organisms… 
 •  What
makes
a
good
model
organism?
 •  Depends
on
purpose:
 •  Mendel
–
peas
had
numerous
DISCRETE
traits
that
were
 variable
and
easy
to
dis4nguish
 •  Discrete
traits
–
‘either
or’
case

simple
gene4cs
 •  Con=nuous
traits
–
many
intermediate
forms

complex
gene4cs
 31
 Phenotypic
Varia4on
 •  Can
have
gene4c
&
environmental
causes
 •  Differences
due
to:
gene4cs;
or
differences
in
environment;
or
 interac4on
b/w
gene4cs
&
environment
 •  Organisms
with
different
genotypes
can
exhibit
the
same
phenotype.
 •  E.g.,
homozygous
for
allele
for
dominant
phenotype;
 heterozygous
for
allele
for
dominant/recessive
phenotype
 •  E.g.,
rock
pocket
mice
of
Arizona
&
New
Mexico

 •  Organisms
with
same
genotype
can
exhibit
diff
phenotypes
 16 9/14/09 Varia4on
in
Characteris4cs
‐

Discrete
or
 Con4nuous?
 •  Discrete
(qualita4ve
varia4on)
=
either/ or
situa4on
 •  E.g.,

flower
colour
either
purple
or
 white;
blood
type
M
or
N
or
MN
 •  Con=nuous
(quan4ta4ve
varia4on)
=

 individuals
differ
in
small,
incremental
 ways
 •  e.g.,
height,
weight,
toe
length,
#
 hairs
on
heads
 If
a
popula4on
of
skunks
includes
some
individuals
 with
stripes
&
others
with
spots,
would
you
 describe
the
varia4on
as:
 A.  B.  C.  D.  Qualita4ve
(discrete)
 Quan4ta4ve
(con4nuous)
 Both
 Neither
 17 9/14/09 Varia4on
in
Characteris4cs
‐

Discrete
or
 Con4nuous?
 •  Amount
of
variability
within
a
popula4on
(for
1
character)
can
be
 determined.
 Gene4cs
&
Model
Organisms…
 •  Mendel
inves4gated
transmission
of
 traits
 •  Pure‐breeding
vs.
hybrid
 •  Reciprocal
crosses
 •  Monohybrid
&
dihybrid
crosses
 •  Follow
through
several
 genera4ons
 36
 18 ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 01/10/2010 for the course BIOLOGY biol2040 taught by Professor Tamarakelly during the Fall '09 term at York University.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online