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2. Practice Questions Review Mitosis & Meiosis

2. Practice Questions Review Mitosis & Meiosis -...

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MEIOSIS & MITOSIS 1. Compare the daughter cells that result from mitosis and meiosis. 2. A cell has undergone meiosis. A) Can it undergo another meiotic division? Why or why not? B) What about a mitotic division? Why or why not? 3. What is fertilization? 4. A complete set of chromosomes in an organism’s cell is followed by separation of the duplicated chromosomes into two new cells. What is this process called? 5. Are plants that reproduce through self-fertilization considered to be asexual or sexual? Explain. 6. After cell division is complete, chromosomes are no longer visible using regular microscopes. Why is this so? 7. What are the products of meiosis? 8. Describe what happens to the products of meiosis if nondisjunction occurs during Meiosis I. 9. Describe what happens to the products of meiosis if nondisjunction occurs during Meiosis II. 10. a)Assuming you are “normal” (i.e., no chromosomal number abnormalities) you inherited more chromosomes from your mother than your father. True / False b) Explain your answer for part a). 11. Organisms that reproduce asexually usually do so through the process (or one quite similar to) of _________. 12. Meiosis is called a reduction division, but all of the reduction occurs during meiosis I—no reduction occurs during meiosis II. Explain why meiosis I is a reduction division, but meiosis II is not. 13. Some plant breeders are concerned about the resistance of asexually cultivated plants, such as seedless bananas, to new strains of disease-causing bacteria, viruses, or fungi. Briefly explain their concern by discussing the differences in the genetic “outcomes” of asexual and sexual reproduction. 14. This is the karyotype of the lubber grasshopper. The researcher drew these chromosomes as they were undergoing meiosis. What event is occurring in the drawing? Draw a line over one of the two homologues in each of the 12 pairs shown, to distinguish the two homologues from each other. 15. List and briefly explain three ways in which genetic variability is increased during meiosis. 16. Females in one species of frog lays thousands of eggs. Gametes (in this case, eggs) for one individual frog were genotyped. In approximately equal numbers, the following egg genotypes were found: GB , Gb , gB , gb . What is the genotype of the individual frog that produced these eggs? 17. If the gametes obtained from the frog in #14 weren’t in equal numbers, that is 2 of the gamete genotypes were found in far greater numbers than the other two, what might this suggest (or indicate)? 18. What is aneuploidy? How does aneuploidy occur? 19. Would a diploid organism or a haploid organism be more affected by a mutation on a single gene? 20. Draw a diagram of a diploid cell with two sets of chromosomes, placing alleles of two genes on the chromosomes as follows: allele A1 on chromosome 1, allele A2 on chromosome 1 (the homologue); allele B 1 on chromosome 2, allele B2 on chromosome 2 (the homologue). Now diagram the 1 n products of meiosis in these cells. What four possible ways will these alleles segregate?
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21. Starting with a fertilised egg (zygote), a series of five cell divisions would produce an early embryo with how
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