7. Lab 4 All labs - BIOL
2040
Lab
4
 Monday
 
...

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Unformatted text preview: BIOL
2040
Lab
4
 Monday
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Name_____________________________
 Student
#:_________________________
 Sweet
peas
differ
in
two
traits,
flower
colour
&
pollen
length.
True‐breeding
plants
with
red
flowers
and
long
 pollen
grains
were
crossed
to
true‐breeding
plants
with
white
flowers
&
short
pollen
grains.

All
of
the
F1
plants
 had
red
flowers
and
long
pollen
grains.


When
the
F1
plants
were
self‐fertilized,
the
following
results
were
 obtained:
 
 Red
flowers,
long
pollen
grains
 
 583

 
 Red
flowers,
short
pollen
grains

 

26
 
 White
flowers,
long
pollen
grains
 

24
 White
flowers,
short
pollen
grains
 170
 Clearly
labelling
each
part
of
the
question
–
answer
in
the
space
below.
 a) Diagram
the
cross,
assigning
symbols
to
each
gene
(allele),
indicating
the
allelic
combinations
of
each
 homologue.
 b) Indicate
the
genotypes
of
each
of
the
classes.
 c) Indicate
the
classes
of
recombinants
and
parentals
on
the
list
above.
 d) Using
a
chi‐square
test,
show
the
evidence
that
these
genes
are
linked.
(Set
up
a
table.)
 e) What
is
the
null
hypothesis
for
the
chi‐square?
 f) What
is
the
recombination
frequency
between
the
2
genes?
 1 BIOL
2040
Lab
4
 Monday
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Name_____________________________
 Student
#:_________________________
 Drosophila
females
heterozygous
for
three
recessive
X‐linked
markers
y
(yellow
body),
ct
(cut
wings),
and
m
 (minature
wings),
and
their
WT
alleles
were
crossed
to
y
ct
m
males.
The
following
progeny
were
obtained:
 
 
 Phenotypic
class
 Yellow,
cut,
miniature
 WT
 
 
 Yellow
 
 
 Cut,
miniature
 
 Miniature
 
 Yellow,
cut
 
 Yellow,
miniature
 Cut
 
 
 a) b) c) d) e) f) g) 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 








Number
 
 30
 
 33
 
 10
 
 12
 
 8
 
 5
 
 1
 
 1
 Diagram
the
cross,
clearly
indicating
the
allelic
combinations
of
the
homologues.
 On
the
list
above
indicate
the
parental
and
recombinant
classes.
 Which
classes
represent
double
crossovers?
 Indicate
the
genotypes
of
each
of
the
classes.
 What
is
the
correct
order
of
these
three
genes
on
the
X
chromosome?
 What
are
the
genetic
map
distances
between
each
gene?
Show
your
calculations
and
your
genetic
map.
 What
is
the
coefficient
of
coincidence
for
this
area?
 2 BIOL
2040
Lab
4
 Monday
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Name_____________________________
 Student
#:_________________________
 R.
K.
Sakai,
K.
Akhtar,
&
C.J.
Dubash
(1985,
J
Hered
76:140‐141)
reported
data
from
a
set
of
testcrosses
with
the
 mosquito
Anopheles
culicifacies,
a
vector
for
malaria
in
southern
Asia.
The
data
involved
three
mutations:
bw
 (brown),
c
(colourless
eyes),
and
Blk
(black
body).

In
each
cross,
trans
heterozygotes
were
mated
to
the
 mosquitoes
homozygous
for
the
recessive
alleles
of
the
genes,
&
the
progeny
were
scored
as
having
either
a
 parental
or
a
recombinant
genotype.

Are
any
of
the
three
genes
studied
in
these
crosses
linked?

If
so,
construct
 a
map
of
the
linkage
relationships.
 Cross
 1
 2
 3
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Trans
 Heterozygote
 bw
+/+
c
 bw
+/
+
Blk
 Blk
+/
+
c
 Parental
 850
 750
 629
 Progeny
 Recombinant
 503
 237
 183
 
 %
 Recombination
 
 
 
 3 BIOL
2040
Lab
4
 Monday
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Name_____________________________
 Student
#:_________________________
 An
individual
homozygous
for
CDE
is
mated
to
one
homozygous
for
cde.
From
a
testcross
between
the
F1
 individuals
1000
offspring
are
produced.
The
class
that
was
C‐D‐ee
included
351
individuals.
Are
the
genes
C,
D,
 and
E
on
the
same
or
different
chromosomes?

Explain.


 
 
 
 
 If
a
is
linked
to
b
and
b
to
c,
and
c
to
d,
does
it
follow
that
a
recombination
experiment
would
detect
linkage
 between
a
and
d?
Explain.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 The
s
(starry)
and
t
(tiny)
genes
alter
the
appearance
of
butterfly
wings.
They
are
linked
and
are
10
m.u.
apart.
 True‐breeding
parents
SStt
and
ssTT
are
crossed
to
form
the
F1.
If
the
F1
is
test‐crossed,
what
proportion
of
the
 progeny
will
be
Sstt?
Diagram
the
cross
and
clearly
show
how
you
calculated
your
answer.


 4 BIOL
2040
Lab
4
 Tuesday
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Name_____________________________
 Student
#:_________________________
 Wild‐type
Drosophila
females
were
mated
to
males
homozygous
for
two
autosomal
mutations
–
vesitigial
(vg),
 which
produces
short
wings,
and
black
(b),
which
produces
a
black
body.
All
of
the
F1
flies
had
long
wings
and
grey
 bodies.

The
F1
females
were
testcrossed
and
the
F2
progeny
were
sorted
by
phenotype
and
counted.

There
were
 four
different
classes
of
progeny
in
the
F2
found
in
the
following
quantities:
 Long
wings,
grey
body
 
 Vestigial
wings,
black
body
 Vestigial
wings,
grey
body
 Long
wings,
black
body
 
 415
 405
 92
 88
 
 Clearly
labelling
each
part
of
the
question
–
answer
in
the
space
below.
 a) Diagram
the
cross,
assigning
symbols
to
each
gene
(allele),
indicating
the
allelic
combinations
of
each
 homologue.
 b) Indicate
the
genotypes
of
each
of
the
classes.
 c) Indicate
the
classes
of
recombinants
and
parentals
on
the
list
above.
 d) Using
a
chi‐square
test,
show
the
evidence
that
these
genes
are
linked.

(Set
up
a
table.)
 e) What
is
the
null
hypothesis
for
the
chi‐square?
 f) What
is
the
recombination
frequency
between
the
2
genes?
 
 1 BIOL
2040
Lab
4
 Tuesday
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Name_____________________________
 Student
#:_________________________
 Singed
bristles
(sn),
crossveinless
wings
(cv),
&
vermillion
eye
colour
(v),
are
due
to
recessive
mutant
alleles
of
 three
X‐linked
genes
in
Drosophila
melanogaster.

When
a
female
heterozygous
for
each
of
the
three
genes
was
 testcrossed
with
the
following
progeny
were
obtained.


 Number
of
 progeny
 Singed,
crossveinless,
vermilion
 3
 Crossveinless,
vermilion
 392
 Vermilion
 34
 Crossveinless
 61
 Singed,
crossveinless
 32
 Singed,
vermilion
 65
 Singed
 410
 WT
 3
 a) Diagram
the
cross,
clearly
indicating
the
allelic
combinations
of
the
homologues.
 b) On
the
list
above
indicate
the
parental
and
recombinant
classes. c) Which
classes
represent
double
crossovers?
 d) Indicate
the
genotypes
of
each
of
the
classes.
 e) What
is
the
correct
order
of
these
three
genes
on
the
X
chromosome?
 f) What
are
the
genetic
map
distances
between
each
gene?
Show
your
calculations
and
your
genetic
map.
 g) What
is
the
coefficient
of
coincidence
for
this
area?
 Phenotype
 
 
 
 
 2 BIOL
2040
Lab
4
 Tuesday
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Name_____________________________
 Student
#:_________________________
 R.
K.
Sakai,
K.
Akhtar,
&
C.J.
Dubash
(1985,
J
Hered
76:140‐141)
reported
data
from
a
set
of
testcrosses
with
the
 mosquito
Anopheles
culicifacies,
a
vector
for
malaria
in
southern
Asia.
The
data
involved
three
mutations:
bw
 (brown),
c
(colourless
eyes),
and
Blk
(black
body).

In
each
cross,
trans
heterozygotes
were
mated
to
the
 mosquitoes
homozygous
for
the
recessive
alleles
of
the
genes,
&
the
progeny
were
scored
as
having
either
a
 parental
or
a
recombinant
genotype.

Are
any
of
the
three
genes
studied
in
these
crosses
linked?

If
so,
construct
 a
map
of
the
linkage
relationships.
 Cross
 1
 2
 3
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Trans
 Heterozygote
 bw
+/+
c
 bw
+/
+
Blk
 Blk
+/
+
c
 Parental
 850
 750
 629
 Progeny
 Recombinant
 503
 237
 183
 
 %
 Recombination
 
 
 
 3 BIOL
2040
Lab
4
 Tuesday
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Name_____________________________
 Student
#:_________________________
 An
individual
homozygous
for
JKL
is
mated
to
one
homozygous
for
jkl.
From
a
testcross
between
the
F1
individuals
 1000
offspring
are
produced.
The
class
that
was
J‐kk‐L‐
included
360
individuals.
Are
the
genes
J,
K,
and
L
on
the
 same
or
different
chromosomes?

Explain.


 
 
 
 
 If
a
is
linked
to
b
and
b
to
c,
and
c
to
d,
does
it
follow
that
a
recombination
experiment
would
detect
linkage
 between
a
and
d?
Explain.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 The
s
(starry)
and
m
(miniature)
genes
alter
the
appearance
of
butterfly
wings.
They
are
linked
and
are
10
m.u.
 apart.
True‐breeding
parents
SSmm
and
ssMM
are
crossed
to
form
the
F1.
If
the
F1
is
test‐crossed,
what
 proportion
of
the
progeny
will
be
Ssmm?
Diagram
the
cross
and
clearly
show
how
you
calculated
your
answer.


 4 BIOL
2040
Lab
4
 Wednesday
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Name_____________________________
 Student
#:_________________________
 An
inbred
strain
of
snapdragons
with
violet
flowers
&
dull
leaves
was
crossed
to
another
inbred
strain
with
white
 flowers
&
shiny
leaves.
The
F1
plants,
which
all
had
violet
flowers
&
dull
leaves,
were
backcrossed
to
the
strain
 with
white
flowers
&
shiny
leaves,
&
the
following
F2
plants
were
obtained:
 
 
 
 
 violet,
dull
 white,
shiny
 violet,
shiny
 white,
dull
 50
 46
 12
 10
 
 
 
 
 Clearly
labelling
each
part
of
the
question
–
answer
in
the
space
below.
 a) Diagram
the
cross,
assigning
symbols
to
each
gene
(allele),
indicating
the
allelic
combinations
of
each
 homologue.
 b) Indicate
the
genotypes
of
each
of
the
classes
 c) Indicate
the
classes
of
recombinants
and
parentals
on
the
list
above.
 d) Using
a
chi‐square
test,
show
the
evidence
that
these
genes
are
linked.
(Set
up
a
table.)
 e) What
is
the
null
hypothesis
for
the
chi‐square?
 f) What
is
the
recombination
frequency
between
the
2
genes?
 
 1 BIOL
2040
Lab
4
 Wednesday
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Name_____________________________
 Student
#:_________________________
 Singed
bristles
(sn),
crossveinless
wings
(cv),
&
vermillion
eye
colour
(v),
are
due
to
recessive
mutant
alleles
of
 three
X‐linked
genes
in
Drosophila
melanogaster.

When
a
female
heterozygous
for
each
of
the
three
genes
was
 testcrossed
with
the
following
progeny
were
obtained.


 Number
of
 progeny
 Singed,
crossveinless,
vermilion
 3
 Crossveinless,
vermilion
 392
 Vermilion
 34
 Crossveinless
 61
 Singed,
crossveinless
 32
 Singed,
vermilion
 65
 Singed
 410
 WT
 3
 a) Diagram
the
cross,
clearly
indicating
the
allelic
combinations
of
the
homologues.
 b) On
the
list
above
indicate
the
parental
and
recombinant
classes.
 c) Which
classes
represent
double
crossovers?
 d) Indicate
the
genotypes
of
each
of
the
classes.
 e) What
is
the
correct
order
of
these
three
genes
on
the
X
chromosome?
 f) What
are
the
genetic
map
distances
between
each
gene?
Show
your
calculations
and
your
genetic
map.
 g) What
is
the
coefficient
of
coincidence
for
this
area?
 Phenotype
 
 
 
 
 2 BIOL
2040
Lab
4
 Wednesday
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Name_____________________________
 Student
#:_________________________
 R.
K.
Sakai,
K.
Akhtar,
&
C.J.
Dubash
(1985,
J
Hered
76:140‐141)
reported
data
from
a
set
of
testcrosses
with
the
 mosquito
Anopheles
culicifacies,
a
vector
for
malaria
in
southern
Asia.
The
data
involved
three
mutations:
bw
 (brown),
c
(colourless
eyes),
and
Blk
(black
body).

In
each
cross,
trans
heterozygotes
were
mated
to
the
 mosquitoes
homozygous
for
the
recessive
alleles
of
the
genes,
&
the
progeny
were
scored
as
having
either
a
 parental
or
a
recombinant
genotype.

Are
any
of
the
three
genes
studied
in
these
crosses
linked?

If
so,
construct
 a
map
of
the
linkage
relationships.
 Cross
 1
 2
 3
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Trans
 Heterozygote
 bw
+/+
c
 bw
+/
+
Blk
 Blk
+/
+
c
 Parental
 850
 750
 629
 Progeny
 Recombinant
 503
 237
 183
 
 %
 Recombination
 
 
 
 3 BIOL
2040
Lab
4
 Wednesday
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Name_____________________________
 Student
#:_________________________
 An
individual
homozygous
for
JKL
is
mated
to
one
homozygous
for
jkl.
From
a
testcross
between
the
F1
individuals
 1000
offspring
are
produced.
The
class
that
was
J‐kk‐L‐
included
360
individuals.
Are
the
genes
J,
K,
and
L
on
the
 same
or
different
chromosomes?

Explain.


 
 
 
 
 If
a
is
linked
to
b
and
b
to
c,
and
c
to
d,
does
it
follow
that
a
recombination
experiment
would
detect
linkage
 between
a
and
d?
Explain.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 The
s
(starry)
and
m
(miniature)
genes
alter
the
appearance
of
butterfly
wings.
They
are
linked
and
are
10
m.u.
 apart.
True‐breeding
parents
SSmm
and
ssMM
are
crossed
to
form
the
F1.
If
the
F1
is
test‐crossed,
what
 proportion
of
the
progeny
will
be
Ssmm?
Diagram
the
cross
and
clearly
show
how
you
calculated
your
answer.


 4 BIOL
2040
Lab
4
 Thursday
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Name_____________________________
 Student
#:_________________________
 Wild‐type
Drosophila
females
were
mated
to
males
homozygous
for
two
autosomal
mutations
–
crinkly
(c),
which
 produces
wrinkled
wings,
and
stripes
(s),
which
produces
a
striped
thorax
(body).
All
of
the
F1
flies
had
normal
 wings
and
no
stripes.

The
F1
females
were
testcrossed
and
the
F2
progeny
were
sorted
by
phenotype
and
 counted.

There
were
four
different
classes
of
progeny
in
the
F2
found
in
the
following
quantities:
 Normal
wings,
no
stripes
 Crinkly
wings,
stripes
 
 Crinkly
wings,
no
stripes
 Normal
wings,
stripes
 
 830
 810
 184
 176
 Clearly
labelling
each
part
of
the
question
–
answer
in
the
space
below.
 a) Diagram
the
cross,
assigning
symbols
to
each
gene
(allele),
indicating
the
allelic
combinations
of
each
 homologue.
 b) Indicate
the
genotypes
of
each
of
the
classes.
 c) Indicate
the
classes
of
recombinants
and
parentals
on
the
list
above.
 d) Using
a
chi‐square
test,
show
the
evidence
that
these
genes
are
linked.
(Set
up
a
table.)
 e) What
is
the
null
hypothesis
for
the
chi‐square?
 f) What
is
the
recombination
frequency
between
the
2
genes?
 1 BIOL
2040
Lab
4
 Thursday
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Name_____________________________
 Student
#:_________________________
 Drosophila
females
heterozygous
for
three
recessive
X‐linked
markers
y
(yellow
body),
ct
(cut
wings),
and
m
 (miniature
wings),
and
their
WT
alleles
were
crossed
to
y
ct
m
males.
The
following
progeny
were
obtained:
 
 
 Phenotypic
class
 Yellow,
cut,
miniature
 WT
 
 
 Yellow
 
 
 Cut,
miniature
 
 Miniature
 
 Yellow,
cut
 
 Yellow,
miniature
 Cut
 
 
 a) b) c) d) e) f) g) 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 








Number
 
 30
 
 33
 
 10
 
 12
 
 8
 
 5
 
 1
 
 1
 Diagram
the
cross,
clearly
indicating
the
allelic
combinations
of
the
homologues.
 On
the
list
above
indicate
the
parental
and
recombinant
classes.
 Which
classes
represent
double
crossovers?
 Indicate
the
genotypes
of
each
of
the
classes.
 What
is
the
correct
order
of
these
three
genes
on
the
X
chromosome?
 What
are
the
genetic
map
distances
between
each
gene?
Show
your
calculations
and
your
genetic
map.
 What
is
the
coefficient
of
coincidence
for
this
area?
 2 BIOL
2040
Lab
4
 Thursday
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Name_____________________________
 Student
#:_________________________
 R.
K.
Sakai,
K.
Akhtar,
&
C.J.
Dubash
(1985,
J
Hered
76:140‐141)
reported
data
from
a
set
of
testcrosses
with
the
 mosquito
Anopheles
culicifacies,
a
vector
for
malaria
in
southern
Asia.
The
data
involved
three
mutations:
bw
 (brown),
c
(colourless
eyes),
and
Blk
(black
body).

In
each
cross,
trans
heterozygotes
were
mated
to
the
 mosquitoes
homozygous
for
the
recessive
alleles
of
the
genes,
&
the
progeny
were
scored
as
having
either
a
 parental
or
a
recombinant
genotype.

Are
any
of
the
three
genes
studied
in
these
crosses
linked?

If
so,
construct
 a
map
of
the
linkage
relationships.
 Cross
 1
 2
 3
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Trans
 Heterozygote
 bw
+/+
c
 bw
+/
+
Blk
 Blk
+/
+
c
 Parental
 850
 750
 629
 Progeny
 Recombinant
 503
 237
 183
 
 %
 Recombination
 
 
 
 3 BIOL
2040
Lab
4
 Thursday
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Name_____________________________
 Student
#:_________________________
 An
individual
homozygous
for
CDE
is
mated
to
one
homozygous
for
cde.
From
a
testcross
between
the
F1
 individuals
1000
offspring
are
produced.
The
class
that
was
C‐D‐ee
included
351
individuals.
Are
the
genes
C,
D,
 and
E
on
the
same
or
different
chromosomes?

Explain.


 
 
 
 
 If
a
is
linked
to
b
and
b
to
c,
and
c
to
d,
does
it
follow
that
a
recombination
experiment
would
detect
linkage
 between
a
and
d?
Explain.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 The
s
(starry)
and
t
(tiny)
genes
alter
the
appearance
of
butterfly
wings.
They
are
linked
and
are
10
m.u.
apart.
 True‐breeding
parents
SStt
and
ssTT
are
crossed
to
form
the
F1.
If
the
F1
is
test‐crossed,
what
proportion
of
the
 progeny
will
be
Sstt?
Diagram
the
cross
and
clearly
show
how
you
calculated
your
answer.


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