2009 AP World Unit II Chapters 16-17 - Reformation compared...

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Reformation compared to Counter Reformation Reformation favored simplicity Salvation by grace(only God’s grace not pope could bring a worshipper to heaven) in reformation that was not believed by counter reformation Reformation had a lack of emphasis on rituals and sacraments while counter reformation stiffened discipline Counter Reformation increased appeal using money by building impressive religious architecture while reformation used ideas Factors that led to absolutism The want to centralize power The Estates General in France and Parliament in England were being ignored so began to start conflict with monarch Monarch triumphed in France Monarch did not want anyone else pestering him about what he should do so fought to be in total control Dutch as trade empire Built numerous canals for transport Was eventually beaten out by England as dominate naval country Most successful in textile industry Amsterdam was the main port Controlled half of world’s commercial ships Had “East Indiaman”-ship that showed Dutch supremacy in Indian Ocean Made joint-stock companies that gave Dutch East companies monopolies over trade in East and west Indies English Bill of Rights impact Curtailed powers of the monarch and made parliament dominant partner in English politics From this point on the parliament gets stronger while the monarch gets more symbolic Dominance of parliament allowed for stronger economies, powerful navies, urbanized societies, and intellectual and cultural outlooks mostly free from religious persecution Rise of the middle class- causes Main: population grew quickly and began to diversify more As population grew more people became jobs in middle area of social status Related development: urbanization Counter-Reformation causes Jesuits formed Wars of religion occurred(main thing) Warfare innovations and impacts New signaling techniques Frequent marching drills(better trained troops and with a better sense of comradeship) New fortifications able to withstand cannon bombardments More innovative ships built Alliances formed Impact: prevented one place from having too much power Impact: A lot of battles ended in stalemates due to competition to have new warfare technologies which prolonged wars Maritime technologies that allowed Europe to dominate Fluit or “flyboat”-large capacity cargo ship “East Indiaman”- Dutch ship talked about above Canals built-most famous is canal duMidi in France that linked Atlantic and Mediterranean Limited monarchy in England – how it came about King Charles ignored Parliament’s rights → led to English Civil War Charles’ successors (Oliver Cromwell, King James II) also ignore Parliament The Glorious Revolution of 1688 → led to writing of the Bill of Rights of 1689 which specified Parliament’s rights Cause of rise of nation states o
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