Ch 26-27 Notes - Goal of Meiji Restoration To protect Japan...

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Goal of Meiji Restoration To protect Japan from Western Imperialism (by transforming it into a rich country with a strong army and world-class industries) Comparison of Russia and Japan industrialization efforts Russia   o Majority of Russians had little education, few legal rights, and no say in gov’t   o State-sponsored projects for industrialization (railroads, iron foundries, etc)   o Wealthy aristocrats were able to dominate the court and block reforms Japan   o Required education to make citizenry literate; new schools with foreign experts   o Conscript army, new navy, postal/telegraph services, railroads and harbors   o Embraced all foreign ideas, institutions, technologies w/out getting in debt Basically Russia FAILED at industrialization compared to Japan (but both tried state-sponsored programs) Japanese challenges in industrializing   Rulers had to change traditional institutions and society First factories exploited workers and had to be sold to private investors Impact of Perry expedition to Japan   Sparked crisis in shogunate; when shoguns agreed to unequal trade agreement, provincial leaders got angry   Provincial leaders joined forces in a civil war to overthrow the Tokugawa shogunate Nationalism   A political ideology that stresses people’s membership in a nation (a community defined by a common culture and history as well as by territory)   Was a source of unity in western Europe in late 18 th and early 19 th centuries   Led to fall of Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires in late 19 th centuries   Ideological foundation for independence of countries emerging from colonialism in 20 th century Meiji government oligarchic structure   Oligarchy: A state governed by a few persons; this was how Meiji gov’t was ruled Role of Europe in world 1750-1914   Promoted industrialization and new technologies   Imperialism: policy of extending a nation's authority by territorial acquisition or by the establishment of economic and political hegemony over other nations   Basically, Europe dominated Social Darwinism   theory that competition among all individuals, groups, nations, or ideas drives social evolution in human societies; survival of the fittest   was used as justification for colonialism and capitalism (exploiting workers)   founder: Herbert Spencer Role of government in Japanese industrialization   Huge role!!! Meiji oligarchs drove all industrialization projects; they’re the ones who changed Japanese society to be more like the west Role of Japanese Gov. in Japanese Industrialization Japanese gov. started and controlled industries/enterprises Mostly things like textile mills or factories that generated commodities 1881- Gov. sells enterprises at a cheap price to Japanese businessmen (cologerates?) After selling to private ownership, industries develop more and expand (Ex: Toyoda Loom Works) Impact of Suez and Panama Canals on Global Trade 1869- Suez Canal creates short cut between Asia to Europe
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