Article 38 - ,GWBushandTexas, andTexasHistory...

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Demythologizing Texas Pride:   Slavery and Ethnic Cleansing in Texas, GW Bush and Texas, and John Sayles’ “Lone Star”  and Texas History  From Gary Anderson,  The Conquest of Texas: Ethnic Cleansing in the Promised Land, 1820- 1875   (2005): This is not your grandfather's history of Texas. Portraying nineteenth-century Texas as a cauldron  of racist violence, Gary Clayton Anderson shows that the ethnic warfare dominating the Texas  frontier can best be described as ethnic cleansing.  The Conquest of Texas  is the story of the struggle between Anglos and Indians for land.  Anderson tells how Scotch-Irish settlers clashed with farming tribes and then challenged the  Comanches and Kiowas for their hunting grounds. Next, the decade-long conflict with Mexico  merged with war against Indians. For fifty years Texas remained in a virtual state of war.  By confronting head-on the romanticized version of Texas history that made heroes out of  Houston, Lamar, and Baylor, Anderson helps us understand that the history of the Lone Star  state is darker and more complex than the mythmakers allowed.  From J ournal of American History  review of  The Conquest of Texas : The Conquest of Texas …..convincingly demonstrates that fifty years of nearly continuous frontier conflict in Texas was not the result of Indian predation but of an evolving policy that may be fairly called ethnic cleansing. Starting haphazardly with Stephen F. Austin in the 1820s and eventually institutionalized following Texan independence from Mexico in 1836, that policy was promoted by Anglo-Texan politicians and editors, and executed by Rangers. Texan forces often targeted Indian villages and massacred women and children in order to terrorize all native peoples into flight. Rangers expelled Cherokees, Shawnees, and other Indians who had relocated from the United States, and drove west Caddos, Wichitas, Comanches, and other peoples native to Texas. Upon annexation to the United States in 1845, well-intentioned U.S. officials tried to restrain attacks against Indians and their lands, and in 1854 they even compelled Texas to create two Indian reservations. But lawlessness, racism, land speculation, and inflated rhetoric about Indian depredations spawned mobs that forced even reservation Indians from the state. Following a reprieve of sorts during and immediately after the Civil War, U.S. cavalry forces defeated the last Comanche holdouts in the early 1870s and confined them to reservations outside of Texas. From  The Journal of Southern History  review of  The Conquest of Texas :
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In 1820 roughly four thousand Hispanics resided in Texas in relative harmony with the province's thirty thousand Native Americans. Sedentary farmers such as the Caddos, Wichitas, and Cherokees lived in the eastern forests, while mounted Comanches hunted
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