Study Guide 3

Study Guide 3 -...

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Unformatted text preview: Study
Sheet
#3
(New

material
since
MII)
 Famous
Earthquakes
 Read
about
these
in
your
text
–
be
able
to
iden3fy
from
a
brief
descrip3on.
 What
makes
an
earthquake
famous?
Size,
Deaths,
Learned
Something.
 Foreign:
 
1923
Kanto,
Japan
 
1929
Grand
Banks,
Canada
 
1960
Agadir,
Morocco
 
1960
Southern
Chile 

 
1975
Haicheng,
China 

 
1976
Tangshan,
China
 
2004
Sumatra
Earthquake
and
Tsunami
 Domes3c
(not
in
California)
 
1811‐1812
New
Madrid,
Missouri
 
1886
Charleston,
South
Carolina
 
1964
Alaska
 Domes3c
California
 
1812
San
Juan
Capistrano 
1857
Fort
Tejon 
 
 
1872
Owens
Valley 
 
 
1906
San
Francisco 
 
 
1933
Long
Beach
 
1971
San
Fernando
 
1989
Loma
Prieta
 
1992
Landers
 
1994
Northridge
 Earthquake
Predic3on
 
Sta3s3cal
Methods
 
 
 
 
 
 
Based
on
recurrence
intervals
 
 
From
Gutenberg‐Richter
distribu3on
of
small
events
 
 
From
paleoseismic
measurements
of
old
earthquakes
 
Based
on
seismic
gaps
 
Based
on
3dal
triggering
 Determinis3c
Methods
 
 
Physical
precursors
based
on
dilatancy‐diffusion
model
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Vp/Vs
 
Electrical
resis3vity
(Ohms
law
V=IR)
 
Changes
in
water
level
in
wells
 
Changes
in
water
chemistry
–
radon
 
Uplif
as
measured
by
3lt‐meters
and
gravimeters
 
 
Newton’s
universal
law
of
gravita3on
 
Precursors
based
on
seismicity
paherns
 
 
Mogi
donuts
 
 
Accelera3ng
seismic
moment
release.
 Role
of
water
and
earthquake
triggering
 
Effec3ve
stress
law:
 τ = µ(σ n − Pw ) 
Earthquake
preven3on
by
triggering
small
events
 
 
why
not
prac3cal?
 € Earthquake
risk
management
 Earthquake
Hazard
 
1)
Proximity
to
ac3ve
faults
 
 
Largest
probable
earthquake
 
 
Largest
credible
earthquake
 
2)

Site
condi3ons
 
 
 
Best
=
bedrock
 
 
 
Worst
=
water
saturated
loose
sediments
 
 
 
 
Liquifac3on
 
 
 
Basin
Resonance
 
 
 
 
Bowl
of
Jello
effect
 Earthquake
Risk
(Hazard
+
Building)
 
Building
integrity
 
Flexibility
 
Resonance
 
Sof
first
story
 
Shear
walls
 
Founda3on
bol3ng
 
Base
isola3on

 Personal
Safety
Measures
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Strap
water
heater
to
wall.
 
Fasten
bookshelves
to
wall.
 
No
heavy
objects
over
bed.
 
Stay
indoors
un3l
afer
shaking
stops
 
Protect
your
head.
 
Check
yourself
for
injuries.
 
If
at
night,
put
on
shoes.
 
Don’t
turn
off
gas
unless
you
smell
a
leak.
 
Know
where
water
and
gas
shut
offs
are
located.
 
Hang
wrench
next
to
gas
shut
off.
 
Keep
a
four‐day
supply
of
food
and
water.
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/11/2010 for the course GEOL 240Lxg at USC.

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