Outline of the Decline of the Ottoman Empire and Greek Independence

Outline of the Decline of the Ottoman Empire and Greek Independence

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THE DECLINE OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE AND THE GREEK WAR OF INDEPENDENCE I Brief Summary of the Ottoman Empire from Beginning to End: 1200s to 1922 II The Greek War of Independence: 1821 to 1829 III The Formation of the Modern Greek State and the Legacy of Foreign Involvement in the Former Territories of the Ottoman Empire I Brief Summary of the Ottoman Empire from Beginning to End: 1200s to 1922 For most of the period covered in this class (1500 to 1900) most of the Middle East, North Africa and Southeastern Europe belonged to the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire was created by nomadic Turkish people who descended from Central Asia (Mongolia) to settle in present-day Turkey in the 1200s. In the 1400s the Ottoman Turks conquered the Greek-speaking Byzantine Empire. The Byzantine Empire had been the eastern half of the Roman Empire, with its capitol in Constantinople since the 300s. With the conquest of the Byzantine Empire the Ottomans expanded their domain from Turkey into Greece and the Balkans (Southeastern Europe). In the following years the Ottomans expanded further, so that by the 1600s they encompassed the present-day nations of Iraq, Kuwait, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, Ethiopia, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Armenia, Georgia, Turkmenistan, Rumania, Moldova, Bulgaria, Hungary, Albania and the former Yugoslavia. Inside the Ottoman Empire, Muslim subjects were privileged before the law, but other religions were allowed to exist. A multitude of different languages were spoken inside the Empire. By the 1600s the Ottoman Empire, centered in Turkey, was one of the largest empires in the world – spreading over three continents (the Middle East, North Africa and Southeastern Europe). The Ottoman’s capitol city was Istanbul – the new name given to the old Byzantine capitol of Constantinople. In the 1500s the Ottomans sought to advance even further into Europe, threatening Italy and Austria. They were stopped from doing so. The Ottomans held sway over the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and they challenged Spain for supremacy in the Western Mediterranean Sea. Hernán Cortés, after returning to Spain from Mexico, went to fight the Ottomans in Algiers with the Spanish army.
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