LECTURE 10-Genome structures what's in a model (organism)

LECTURE 10-Genome structures what's in a model (organism) -...

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Genomes summary 1. >930 bacterial genomes sequenced. 2. Circular.  Genes densely packed. 3. 2-10 Mbases, 470 - 7,000 genes 4. Genomes of >200 eukaryotes (45 “higher”) sequenced.  5. Linear chromosomes 6. On average,  ~ 50% of gene functions “known”. 7. Human genome: <40,000 genes code for >120,000 proteins. Large gene families (e.g. 500 protein kinases)     98% of human DNA is noncoding. ~ 3% of human DNA = simple repeats (satellites,  minisatellites, microsatellites) ~ 50% of DNA = mobile elements (DNA transposons,  retrotransposons (LTR and nonLTR) & pseudogenes)
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Bacterial genome sizes Small and large Predicted genes in bacterial species Mycoplasma genitalium   470 Mycoplasma mycoides   985 E. coli                             4,288 B. anthracis 5,508 P. aeruginosa 5,570 Mycobacterium leprae 1,604 Mycobacterium tuberculosis 3,995 ~ 930 sequenced microbial genomes     (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sutils/genom_table.cgi )
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Genome sizes Gene density down in mammals
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Bacterial genomes are circular and densely packed with genes - 1 B. anthracis.  Genes (circles 1 & 2).
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Bacterial genomes are circular and densely packed with genes - 2 M. tuberculosis (4.41 MB).   M. leprae (4.41 MB).   1116 pseudogenes (circles 3 & 4).
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Representative gene arrangements in 50 kb segments of yeast, fly and human DNA. Few  yeast  genes contain introns (exons are blue).  Genes above and  below the line are transcribed in opposite directions.
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Numbers and types of genes in different eukaryotes About half the genes encode proteins of unknown function.
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Human genome: <2% ORFs & 48% repeats Human genome: <40,000 genes Average  ~ 3 proteins/gene 98% of DNA is noncoding
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This note was uploaded on 01/12/2010 for the course MCB 110 taught by Professor Alber,zhou,nogales during the Fall '07 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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LECTURE 10-Genome structures what's in a model (organism) -...

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