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HW1_Solutions_42 - HES/Zoo BME 303 Homework 1 Due on Sept 8...

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Unformatted text preview: HES/Zoo BME 303 Homework 1 Due on Sept 8, 2009 Lab Session: 14342 Rebecca Lee 1) Analog computers are limited in precision, and general-purpose analog devices are expensive and not easily programmed. Analog is continuous computation, digital is I discrete. Both have their strengths and weaknesses; each is suited to differ nt 7% applications. Digital, however, rules the day because digital is more acqyfate, simpler to use, and can be used for a wider range of applications. Traditionally, computing with 00(9) ka16: (i analog meant computing with complicated mathematics such as differential equations. , ? Simple electronic programming used for digital computers, however, led to hi gher—level A V’ 0 4’ languages with ever-growing expressive power. Because digital machines perform computations by manipulating fixed, finite sets of digits, it is easier to increase in accuracy (by adding more digits, for example). Also with modern day technology they can perform tasks faster than analog computers with more consistent results. 2) One of the difficulties with electronic c puters that encourage the research into DNA computing includes the need for storag information. DNA provides extremely dense information storage, for example, one gram of DNA which would only occupy one cubic $0 / centimeter of space, can hold as much information as about on trillion CDs. The fastest supercomputer today also cannot match up to the parallelis hat DNA can achieve, for example, in the experiment approximately lO/‘14 DNA flight numbers were simultaneously put together in about one second — uch faster than any existing computer. Super computers are also far legs—taggZelfficient than molecular processes. In DNA replication, one joule is sufficient for approximately 2 X 10A19 ligation operations, whereas computers execute at most 109 operations per joule: EXTRA CREDIT: 1) The x-ray machine was named after H.J. Muller, who demonstrated that X-rays caused mutations. For this work Muller was later awarded the Nobel Prize. Muller’s X-ray machine is in the east lobby of the Molecular Biology Building. HQ my! We mat/W‘Vte (in, w: @IW rvww-igafio MS begun: he otchctWI-d mt X—my’: Wad I ”thew-(d gel/(elk amt/I684 in (‘IZ’F- 50 2) The first photograph was taken in France by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce, in summer of 1826. In the window of his upper-story workroom at his Saint-Loup-de-Varennes country house, Le Gras, he set up a camera obscura, placed inside it a polished pewter plate coated with asphalt and petroleum, and uncapped the lens. After at least a day-long exposure of eight hours, the plate was removed and the image of the View from the Window was made visible by washing it with a mixture of oil of lavender and white petroleum. The result was the permanent direct positive picture—a one-of-a-kind photograph on pewter. It renders a view of the outbuildings, courtyard, trees and landscape as seen from that upstairs window. This process was called heliography, and the photo was named “View from the Window at Le Gras”. ...
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