CS201-08 - Introduction to Programming Lecture No. 8 In the...

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to Programming Lecture No. 8 In the last lecture Loops Operators – While – Do while – For – Increment / Decrement – Compound Assignment Operators Example: Program to calculate the average marks of class int sum; int students ; int average ; sum = 0 ; students = 0 ; do { cin >> grade ; sum += grade ; students ++ ; } while (grade >= 0) ; average = sum / students ; cout << average ; A Flaw in the code Multi­way decision if Statements if ( grade ==‘A’ ) cout << “ Excellent ” ; if ( grade ==‘B’ ) cout << “ Very Good ” ; if ( grade ==‘C’ ) cout << “ Good ” ; if ( grade ==‘D’ ) cout << “ Poor ” ; if ( grade ==‘F’ ) cout << “ Fail ” ; if else if ( grade ==‘A’ ) cout << “ Excellent ” ; else if ( grade ==‘B’ ) cout << “ Very Good ” ; else if ( grade ==‘C’ ) cout << “ Good ” ; else if ( grade ==‘D’ ) cout << “ Poor ” ; if else if ( grade == ‘A’ ) cout << “ Excellent ” ; else if ( grade == ‘B’ ) … else if … … else … switch statement switch statements switch ( variable name ) { case ‘a’ : statements; case ‘b’ : statements; case ‘c’ : statements; … } switch statements switch ( grade) { case ‘A’ : cout << “ Excellent ” ; case ‘B’ : cout << “ Very Good ” ; case ‘C’ : … … } switch statements case ‘A’ : cout << “ Excellent ” ; … … Example switch ( grade) { case ‘A’ : cout << “ Excellent ” ; case ‘B’ : cout << “ Very Good ” ; case ‘C’ : cout << “Good ” ; case ‘D’ : cout << “ Poor ” ; case ‘F’ : cout << “ Fail ” ; } break; Example switch ( grade ) { case ‘A’ : cout << “ Excellent ” ; break ; case ‘B’ : cout << “ Very Good ” ; break ; case ‘C’ : cout << “Good ” ; break ; case ‘D’ : cout << “ Poor ” ; break ; case ‘F’ : cout << “ Fail ” ; break ; } default : default : cout << “ Please Enter Grade from ‘A’ to ‘D’ or ‘F’ “ ; Flow Chart of switch statement switch (grade) case ‘A’ : Display “Excellent” case ‘B’ : Display “Very Good” … Default : “……..” if ( amount > 2335.09 ) statements ; Whole Number short int long case ‘A’ : case ‘ 300 ‘ : case ‘ f ‘ : break ; if (c == ‘z’ ) { } cout << “ Great ! You have made the correct guess “ ; break ; continue ; continue while trynum <= 5 ; { …. …. continue ; } continue in ‘for’ loop for ( counter = 0 ;counter <= 10 ; counter ++ ) { ……. continue ; } What have we done till now … Sequential Statements Decisions Loops – if , if else , switch – while , do while , for Unconditional Branch of Execution goto Structured Programming Sequences Decisions Loops Minimize the use of break Never use goto Minimize the use of continue Guide lines for structured programming Modular Single entry ­ single exit Rules for Structured Flowchart Rule 1 : Use the simplest flowchart Rule 2 : Any rectangle can be replaced by two rectangles. Rule 3 : Any rectangle can be replaced with structured flowcharting constructs. Rule 4 : It says, rule 2 and rule 3 can be repeated as many times as needed Next Milestones Data Structures Character Strings Pointers – Arrays ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/12/2010 for the course CS CS 201 taught by Professor Dr.naveedmalik during the Spring '09 term at Virtual University of Pakistan.

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