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i-o_chapter_124 - Part One The Practice of...

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Unformatted text preview: Part One The Practice of Indusrrfal-Orgarzfzatimm! Psychology Organizational Psychology (Chapter 9). Few people work in isolation. Whether our work is in a classroom, a department store, or a software company, it takes place within a particular organizational climate or culture. This culture includes the formal structure and policies of the organization, the nature of its ieadership, and the informal groups that arise among workers. Informal groups may dictate norms and behaviors at variance with company policy. Working Conditions (Chapter 13). The physical aspects of the work environment were the first to be studied by 1-0 psychologists. Much research was conducted on lighting, temperature, noise, workspace design, and working hours. Later, at- tention shifted to more compiex social and psychologicai conditions of work. A job's psychological climate, including such factors as fatigue and boredom, may be more important than the physical climate because psychoiogical effects are subject to greater individual variation. Empieyee Safety, Violence, and Health (Chapter 11). In addition to the tragic physi— cai and personal consequences of industrial accidents, economic losses cost or- ganizations biliions oi dollars in lost work hours, empioyee compensation, and the expense of hiring and training new workers. Because the majority of acci- dents are caused by human error, the work of 1—0 psychoiogists is crucial in reducing the accident toii. Psychologists are also involved in efforts to deal with alcohol and drug use on the job, and with violence in the workplace. Stress in the Workplace (Simmer 12). Job—induced stress has widespread effects on physicai and mental health. it can interfere withjob performance and lead to seri- ous illness. Many organizations attempt to deal with the effects of stress through counseling programs and by redesigning jobs to be less stressful. Engineering Psychology (Chapier 13). The design of the tools and equipment needed to perform a job is directly related to the physicai work environment, to employee motivation and morale, and to job safety. As the machinery of the manufacruring. transportation, and service industries becomes more complex, so do the demands placed on the human operators of this equipment. It is the job of the engineering psychologist to ensrire the best working relationship between person and machine by taking account of the strengths and weaknesses of both. Consumer Psychology (Chapter 14). The work of consumer psychologists is impor‘ tant to you if yOu are employed by a company that manufactures and seils con~ sumer products and services, and ii you hope to be a smart and informed buyer. Psychologists are involved in defining the markets for consumer goods, deter— mining the effectiveness of advertising campaigns, and analyzing the motivations and needs of the buying public. Work provides a sense of personal identity, defines your social status, con- tributes to your self-esteem, and satisfies yOur need for belonging to a group. Industrial-orgatflzational (I-O) psychology is defined as the application of the methods, facts, and principles of the science of behavior and mental processes to people at work. As a science, psychology relies on observation and ...
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