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Lecture1Reading

Lecture1Reading - Prototyping The use of simplified and...

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Unformatted text preview: Prototyping The use of simplified and incomplete models of a design to explore ideas, elaborate requirements, refine specifica- tions, and test functionality. Prototyping is the creation of simple, incomplete models or mockups of a design. It provides designers with key insights into real-world design requirements, and gives them a method to visualize, evaluate, learn, and improve design specifica- tions prior to delivery. There are three basic kinds of prototyping: concept, throw- away, and evolutionary.l Concept prototyping is useful for exploring preliminary design ideas quickly and inexpensively. For example, concept sketches and storyboards are used to develop the appearance and personality of characters in animated films well before the costly process of animation and rendering take place. This approach helps com- municate the concepts to others, reveals design requirements and problems, and allows for evaluation by a target audience. A common problem with concept proto- typing is the artificial reality problem, the plausible presentation of an implausible design. A good artist or modeler can make most any design look like it will work. Throwaway prototyping is useful for collecting information about the functionality and performance of certain aspects of a system. For example, models of new automobile designs are used in wind tunnels to better understand and improve the aerodynamics of their form. The prototypes are discarded once the needed information is obtained. A common problem with throwaway prototyping is the assumption that the functionality will Scale or integrate properly in the final design, which of course it often does not. Evolutionary prototyping is useful when many design specifications are uncertain or changing. in evolutionary prototyping, the initial prototype is developed, evaluated, and refined continuously until it evolves into the final system. Design requirements and specifications never define a final product, but merely the next iteration of the design. For example, software developers invariably use evolutionary prototyping to manage the rapid and volatile changes in design requirements. A common problem with evolutionary prototyping is that designers tend to get tunnel vision, focusing on tuning existing specifications, rather than exploring design alternatives.- lncorporate prototyping into the design process. Use concept prototypes to develop and evaluate preliminary ideas, and throwaway prototypes to explore and test design functionalities and performance. Schedule time for prototype evaluation and iteration. When design requirements are unclear or volatile, consider evolutionary prototyping in lieu of traditional approaches. Consider the common problems of artificial realities, scaling and integration, and tunnel vision when evaluating proto- types and design alternatives. See also Feedback Loop, Satisficing, and Scaling Fallacy. 158 lrilllf‘ 1-,”! I‘Iill- !‘,_l]'!' '-l [it"-Ii'lll See. lor example, Human-Computer lll!(.‘l{l(‘/IOI7 by Jenny Frame, of at, Addison- Wusley, 1994, p. 537 563; The Arlnf lnnoval/‘n/r by Toni Kelley and Jonathan Liltman, Doubleday, 2001; and Serious Play: How [he World's Besl Compan/es Simulate lo lnnovale by Michael Schrage, Haivard Business School Press, 1999. ‘ Evolutionary prototyping is often contrasted with incremental prototyping. which is the rlmximmsilion ol 3 design into multiple stages that are then delivered one at a time. They are izonihn‘led here lmzause they .ire Invarlably combined In practice. [I'm ‘rm-Imu 4nd 2'1 i-m‘fir -. .‘mriy menu; .-nn'..- ..[ the (JR-3x aul‘e Hale bi}: ztvlllfi ”f jirtriffidflnm: I” the ‘1‘"):ng pr:u'—'-c:-_., wt] rim r--'1!.Hi."1I]fi|l 3):: ahgvmgsuq. mm aw] l-'.'J Judy me: lkh‘mnl 1]“ nmm HTrr-v r.‘irnm.'I-.:0rMJ .an'rl pr-rtrg. "grim ‘M-zm =I'--'-Hrl I'r: 11'!er ham: .mrj :nd‘:iv1.:r1:if=llll= H! n 1M . _ l..'r*.r"ll'.ua:rt_'r “wk-fa wr—n? .:~-.u-:-'i IrJ Lair :r'..r:ham'-; 4| Id wt um; 19, afn-{russ "' =lr !.‘I'u":; 159 Iteration A process of repeating a set of operatio 5 until a specific result is achieved. Ordered complexity does not occur without iteration. in nature, iteration allows complex structures to form by progressively building on simpler structures. in design, iteration allows complex structures to be created by progressively explor- ing, testing, and tuning the design, The emergence of ordered complexity results from an accumulation of knowledge and experience that is then applied to the design. For example, a quality software user interface is developed through a series of design iterations. Each version is reviewed and tested, and the design is then iterated based on the feedback. The interface typically progresses from low fidelity to high fidelity as more is learned about the interface and how it will be used. iteration occurs in all development cycles in two basic forms: design itera— tion and development iteration.‘ Design iteration is the expected iteration that occurs when exploring, testing, and refining design concepts. Each cycle in the design process narrows the wide range of possibilities until the design conforms to the design requirements. Prototypes of increasing fidelity are used throughout the process to test concepts and identify unknown variables. Members of the target audience should be actively involved in various stages of iterations to support testing and verify design requirements. Whether tests are deemed a success or failure is irrelevant in design iteration, since both success and failure provide important information about what does and does not work. in fact, there is often more value in failure, as valuable lessons are learned about the failure points of a design. The outcome of design iteration is a detailed and well-tested specification that can be developed into a final product.-' Development iteration is the unexpected iteration that occurs when building a prod- uct. Unlike design iteration, development iteration is rework—Le, unnecessary waste in the development cycle. Development iteration is costly and undesirable, and generally the result of either inadequate or incorrect design specifications, or poor planning and management in the development process. The unknowns associated with a design should ideally be eliminated during the design stage. Plan for and employ design iteration. Establish clear criteria defining the degree to which design requirements must be satisfied for the design to be considered com- plete. One of the most effective methods of reducing development iteration is to ensure that all development members have a clear, high-level vision of the final product. This is often accomplished through well-written specifications accompa— nied by high-fidelity models and prototypes. See also Development Cycle, Fibonacci Sequence, Prototyping, and Self-Similarity. 118 I-i.|_.-. III:|J|:'||IlI" -'|"II-I,.r| ' A seminal contemporary work on iteration in design is The Evolution of Useful Things by Henry Petroski, Vintage Books, 1994. See also Product Design and Development by Karl T, Ulrich and Steven D. Eppinger, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2nd ed., 1999. See also "Posrtive vs. Negative Iteration in Design" by Glenn Ballard. Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Con/erence of the International Group for Lean Construction, 2000. A common problem with design iteration is the absence of a defined endpoint—Le. each iteration refines the design, but also reveals additional opportunities for refinement. resulting in a design process that never ends. To LIVOid this. establish clear criteria defining the degree to which design requirerrrents must be satislled for the design to be considered cairiplete. firmw- '~'1.rirul':_ inf-'14 Ii' . i} - "2H:\'W.:.'!-.'."l'- 1:1 tux-"n11!" ". l .> ' I-“MHHIlllll'11-:I.!!'-.‘h"-“. . ‘lilt‘ll' 1:51.139'1-.5.|iuk;n,; -:.' " |2:"r ""IIEIIIEIHL' l;:rl:rh|r_'.g;1-rh.rrgg _::-..I .- :.u||:i.'-:|.:!1-g an ,,=~ .~.I-.:.ln-.ui:.!=1deem -- [19 Development Cycle Successful products typically follow four stages of creation: requirements, design, development, and testing. All products progress sequentially through basic stages of creation. Understanding and using effective practices for each stage allows designers to maximize a prod- uct’s probability of success. There are four basic stages of creation for all prod- ucts: requirements, design, development, and testing.‘ Requirements In formal processes, requirements are gathered through market research, customer feedback, focus groups, and usability testing. lnformally, design requirements are often derived from direct knowledge or experience. Design requirements are best obtained through controlled interactions between designers and members of the target audience, and not simply by asking people what they want or like—often they do not know, or cannot clearly articulate their needs. Design This stage is where design requirements are translated into a form that yields a set of specifications. The goal is to meet the design requirements, though an implicit goal is to do so in a unique fashion. Excellent design is usually accomplished through careful research of existing or analogous solutions, active brainstorming of many diverse participants, ample use of prototyping, and many iterations of trying, testing, and tuning concepts. A design that is appreciably the same at the begin- ning and end of this stage is probably not much of a design. Development The development stage is where design specifications are transformed into an actual product. The goal of development is to precisely meet the design specifica- tions. Two basic quality control strategies are used to accomplish this: reduce variability in the materials, creations of parts, and assembly of parts; and verify that specifications are being maintained throughout the development process. Testing The testing stage is where the product is tested to ensure that it meets design requirements and specifications, and will be accepted by the target audience. Testing at this stage generally focuses on the quality of modules and their integra— tion, real-world performance (real contexts, real users), and ease and reliability of installation. Gather requirements through controlled interactions with target audiences, rather than simple feedback or speculation by team members. Use research, brainstorm- ing, prototyping, and iterative design to achieve optimal designs. Minimize variabil- ity in products and processes to improve quality. Test all aspects of the design to the degree possible. See also Hierarchy of Needs, Iteration, Life Cycle, Prototyping, and Scaling Fallacy. 62 Universal Prinmples of Design ‘ A nice treatment of contemporary product development issues and strategies is found in Products in Half the Time: New Rules, New Tools by Preston G. Smith and Donald G. Reinertsen, John Wiley & Sons, 2nd ed, 1997; and Managing the Design Factory: The Product Developer’s Too/kit by Donald G. Reinertsen, Free Press, 1997. Linear . ' _i 1 ' d y '- .; . ' 5 . ' \- g E 3' x;- x' ". 3 fl . . -_ g ' .‘i 1‘ ..3- .t T: t K .4 -_ . t . . a .";,i '5 V '3 ."- ' i 'z e ’ _. ’ J. Requirements Design Development Testing ..__.___ Time _.,..... ._-._..___..... _-....._.___._... ........H___.........._...__._._.._ Iterative .1 ”5mm ' ‘ ..' era-mama 3.33:4 .'"= ‘ 't—e-a Wei. 3.». \‘Lfiafli 86'“ max 1 Hr mg 2mm ' MLflW “Lamar v '53:: Emma. thLé-a. m‘ m 3:133:34». 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Dery, emotions. and i.rr'ider‘£.~:.t;ii id ing of events through an interactiriin between a storyteller a nd a n :1 ud ien “:e. Storytelling is uniquely human. It is the original method of passing knowledge from n“, unnuml work ”.1 ..,k,,y,pnmg .r, Angmnp-q one generation to the next, and remains one of the most compelling methods Poetics. Additional rmnnmi references; Include, for richly communicating knowledge. Storytelling can be oral. as in the traditional r h” ”‘9’“ WV” " ”Km-WW ”0‘11“ hY J'WD“ tjaurptx‘ll, Princeton |Jnnverz~zity li‘ross, l960: telling of a tale; visual, as in an information graph or movie; or textual, as in a . . . _ . . , ‘ :rnd Howlo reliable/y.- and ()1th Essays poem or novel. More recently. digital storytelling has emerged. which Involves by Mm rm”, (Mam mm”), “mm ”96 telling a story using digital media. This might take the form of a computerized slide A nice corner..me reference) on mu." show, a digital video, or educational software. A storyteller can be any instrument of Ktmytrrllme Is Girl/)IM' Stwylelliw.’ by Will Winer- information presentation that engages an audience to experience a set of events.‘ "”"th‘e P'CSS- ")9"- Good storytelling experiences generally require certain fundamental elements. While additional elements can be added to further augment the quality of a story or storytelling experience, they can rarely be subtracted without detriment. The fundamental elements are: . Setting—The setting orients the audience. providing a sense of time and place for the story. i ;' . Characters~~Character identification is how the audience becomes involved in the story. and how the story becoi‘nes relevant. I t . . . ; . . Flop-The plot ties events in the story together. and rs the channel through , which the story can flow. i . lnvisibi/i!y--~The awareness of the storyteller fades. as the audience focuses on a good story. When engaged in a good movie or book, the existence of i the medium is forgotten. I . Mood—Music, lighting, and style of prose create the emotional tone of ; the story. I. f . Movement ----- in a good story, the sequence and flow of events rs clear and interesting. The storyline doesn‘t stall. Use storytelling to engage an audience in a desrgn, evoke a specrfic emotional response. or provide a rich context to enhance learning. When successfully employed. an audience will experience and recall the events of the story in a personal way----it becomes a part of them. This is a phenomenon unique to storytelling. See .ris-a Framing, Immersion, and Wayfinding. l86 ANiJ lilGi l'szoUSlllfi'i‘. Black Granite Flowing Water Asymmetric Table Flowing Water Events The Civil Rights Memorial . . Southern Poverty _Law Center in Montgomery, Alabama Cantilevered Table Setting . Milestone events of the civil rights movement are presented with their dates and places. The memorial sits Within the greater, historically releVant context of the Southern Poverty Law Center in Montgomery, Alabama. Characters The civil rights movement is a story of individual sacrifice toward the attainment of a greater good, Key activists and opponents are integral to the story and are listed by name. Plot Events are presented simply and concisely, listed in chronological order and aligned along a circular path. Progress in thecivil rights movement is inferred as cause~efiect relationships between events. No editorializing—just the facts invisibility ._ The table is cantilevered to hide its structure. The black granite is minimal, providing maximum contrast with the platinum-inscribed lettering. The structure is further concealed through its interaction with water, which makes . it a mirrored surface. Mood The table's asymmetry suggests a. theme of different but equal. The mirrored surface created by the water on black granite reveals the story in union with the reflected image of the viewer. The sound of water is calming and healing. Movement The flow of water against gravity suggests the struggle of the civil rights movement. As the water gently pours over the edge, the struggle is overcome. Simile becomes reality as water rolls down the back wall. ...
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