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displays - CS148: Introduction to Computer Graphics and...

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Unformatted text preview: CS148: Introduction to Computer Graphics and Imaging Displays Topics Perception Spatial resolution Temporal resolution Color calibration Display technologies CS148 Lecture 11 Pat Hanrahan, Winter 2009 Resolution World is continuous, digital media is discrete … Three aspects: Color and intensity resolution Physical limits: color “pigments”, 1-bit vs n-bit tones Human limits: just-noticeable differences, trichromaticity Spatial resolution (x, y) Physical limits: pixel size and display size Human limits: photoreceptor density + optics Temporal resolution (t) Physical limits: film transport, channel bandwidth Human limits: neuronal response time CS148 Lecture 11 Pat Hanrahan, Winter 2009 Contrast Sensitivity Function CS148 Lecture 11 Pat Hanrahan, Winter 2009 Visual Acuity / Snellen Chart 20/20 vision = 1 arcmin ~1/16” at 20’ Monitor viewing range: ~1/100” at 3’ CS148 Lecture 11 Pat Hanrahan, Winter 2009 Spatial Resolution Photoreceptor mosaic Foveal (1 deg.) vs. peripheral Photoreceptor density Rods: 100 million total Cones (3 subtypes L, M, S): 5 million total 1 um (foveal), 10 um (periphery) Foveal resolution: 10 arcmins (S), 0.5 arcmins (L, M) Pupil of the eye is diffraction limited 4 mm pupil 6 um circle of confusion (bigger than a photorecepter) CS148 Lecture 11 Pat Hanrahan, Winter 2009 Common Image Resolutions Television NTSC HDTV-1 HDTV-2 Computers VGA XGA SXGA UXGA 300 dpi 1200 dpi 640x480x24b 1024x768x24b 1280x1024x24b 1600x1280x24b (8.5”x300)*(11”x300) (8.5”x1200)*(11”x1200) ~3/4 MB ~2.5 MB ~4 MB ~6 MB 1.05 MB ~64 MB ~27 MB Pat Hanrahan, Winter 2009 720x480x8b 1280x720x8b 1920x1080x8b MB ~1 MB ~2 MB Laserprinters (dpi = dots per inch) Film (line pairs per mm, ASA 25 ~ 125 lpm) 35 mm (diagonal) 3000x2000x3x12b CS148 Lecture 11 Display Resolution History Rate of increase is low (1.1 compound overall) Date 1980 1988 1996 2001 Format and Technology 1024 x 768 x 60Hz, CRT 1280 x 1024 x 72Hz, CRT 1920 x 1080 x 72Hz, HD CRT 3840 x 2400 x 56Hz, active LCD Bandwidth 0.14 GB 0.29 GB 0.60 GB 1.55 GB 1.1 1.1 1.2 Rate Slide from K. Akeley CS148 Lecture 11 Pat Hanrahan, Winter 2009 IBM T221 Resolution: 3840 x 2400 (QXGA) Size: 21.5” x 17.3” (204 dpi) CS148 Lecture 11 Pat Hanrahan, Winter 2009 PowerWall UC-Davis CS148 Lecture 11 Pat Hanrahan, Winter 2009 PowerWall Resolution: 3 * 1280 x 2 * 1024 = 3040 x 2048 Size: 18’ x 9’ (18dpi) CS148 Lecture 11 Pat Hanrahan, Winter 2009 VGA PDA Resolution: 640 x 480 (VGA) Size: 3.5” x 2.8” (182 dpi) CS148 Lecture 11 Pat Hanrahan, Winter 2009 Temporal Resolution Critical flicker fusion rate High ambient light, large field of view: 80 Hz Low ambient light, 20-30 Hz Frames per second (FPS) Film (double framed) TV (interlaced) Computer (progressive) 24 FPS 30 FPS 60-75 FPS CS148 Lecture 11 Pat Hanrahan, Winter 2009 Color Calibration www.drycreekphoto.com/Learn/color_management.htm Monitor Colors Monitor Phosphors x y .635 .340 .305 .595 .155 .070 0.2 * Red Phosphor 0.0 * Green Phosphor + Resulting Spectra 0.8 * Blue Phosphor CS148 Lecture 11 Pat Hanrahan, Winter 2009 Display Information Dell 24” Flat Panel CS148 Lecture 11 Pat Hanrahan, Winter 2009 Monitor Calibration x R G B W .640 .300 .150 .313 y .330 .600 .060 .329 CS148 Lecture 11 Pat Hanrahan, Winter 2009 sRGB – Standard Color Primaries x R G B W .640 .300 .150 .313 y .330 .600 .060 .329 CS148 Lecture 11 Pat Hanrahan, Winter 2009 Color Gamut Gamut mapping: map colors from one color space to another Some colors may be outside the gamut; need to map to nearest color inside the target gamut CS148 Lecture 11 Pat Hanrahan, Winter 2009 Display Technologies Cathode Ray Tube CS148 Lecture 11 Pat Hanrahan, Winter 2009 Screen Mask CS148 Lecture 11 Pat Hanrahan, Winter 2009 Phosphors Delta Gun CS148 Lecture 11 Inline Pat Hanrahan, Winter 2009 Plasma CS148 Lecture 11 Pat Hanrahan, Winter 2009 Liquid Crystal Displays CS148 Lecture 11 Pat Hanrahan, Winter 2009 Liquid Crystal Displays CS148 Lecture 11 Pat Hanrahan, Winter 2009 Dynamic Micro-Mirror Device (DMD) CS148 Lecture 11 Pat Hanrahan, Winter 2009 Digital Light Processing (TI) - DLP CS148 Lecture 11 Pat Hanrahan, Winter 2009 Virtual Retinal Display CS148 Lecture 11 Pat Hanrahan, Winter 2009 OLED Keyboard http://www.artlebedev.com/everything/optimus CS148 Lecture 11 Pat Hanrahan, Winter 2009 Electronic Ink CS148 Lecture 11 Pat Hanrahan, Winter 2009 Kindle 2 CS148 Lecture 11 Pat Hanrahan, Winter 2009 Things to Remember Spatial and temporal resolutions Physical limits Psychophysical limits Color gamuts Emerging display technologies CS148 Lecture 11 Pat Hanrahan, Winter 2009 ...
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