Standards Energy Star and CAFE Part 2

Standards Energy Star and CAFE Part 2 -...

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Unformatted text preview: What’s
In
a
Name?
 •  Passenger
car:
“any
four‐wheeled
vehicle
not
 designed
for
off‐road
use
that
transports
10
 people
or
fewer.”
 •  Light
truck:
“four
wheeled
vehicles
that
are
 designed
for
off‐road
operaFon
or
vehicles
 that
weigh
between
6,000
and
8,500
lbs
and
 have
physical
features
consistent
with
those
of
 a
truck.”
 Rise
of
the
SUV
 Seriously
Useless
Vehicles
  Ford
Explorer:

 13‐19
mpg
  Lincoln
 Navigator:
 13‐18
mpg
  Chevy
 Suburban:
 14‐20
mpg
 
The
Sierra
Club
calculates
that
driving
an
SUV
 for
one
year
is
equivalent
to
the
energy
you
 would
waste
by
 •  
 leaving
your
refrigerator
door
open
for
six
 years,
 •  
keeping
a
light
on
in
your
house
for
30
years,
 or
 •  leaving
your
TV
on
for
28
years.

 US
C.A.F.E.
Standards
 IncenFves
 C.A.F.E.
Standards
Around
the
World

 Fuel
Economy
of
US
Car
Fleet
 Changes
in
mpg,
US
auto
fleet
 The
Ostrich
Years
 •  •  •  •  •  •  Maximum
fuel
economy:
1987:

26.2
mpg.
 
Average
in
2004:
24.6
mpg.
 From
1987
to
2004:
 Vehicle
average
weight:
 From
3,220
pounds
to
4,066

 Partly
due
an
increase
in
truck
ownership
 during
that
Fme
from
28%
to
53%.
 Californians
Try
to
Do
Something
 •  In
2004,
California
adopted
the
world's
first
 standards
designed
to
cut
global
warming
 polluFon
from
new
cars
and
trucks.

 •  The
historic
law,
which
up
to
13
other
states
 either
adopted
or
planned
to
adopt,
requires
 automakers
to
reduce
heat‐trapping
exhaust
 from
new
vehicles
by
about
30
percent
over
 the
next
decade.
 
California
Air
Resources
Board
 esFmates
that
the
new
standards
 will
reduce
GHG
emissions
by
 17%
in
2020
and
by
25%
in
2030.

 Energy
Independence
and
Security
Act,
 2007
 •  •  •  •  Included
changes
in
CAFE
standards.
 35
miles
per
gallon
(mpg)
by
2020.
 First
change
since
1975.
 Applied
to
all
passenger
automobiles,
 including
"light
trucks."

 Sources
 •  PoliFcians
had
faced
increased
public
pressure
 to
raise
CAFE
standards;

 •  A
July
2007
poll
conducted
in
30
congressional
 districts
in
seven
states
revealed
84‐90%
in
 favor
of
legislaFng
mandatory
increases.
 •  Bush
called
on
Congress
to
give
him
the
power
 to
increase
fuel
economy
standards.
 
“Like
Dorothy
in
Oz,
the
President
 has
had
this
authority
all
along,
 but
has
refused
to
use
it.”
 
(Dan
Becker,
Director
of
Global
Warming
 Program
of
the
Sierra
Club.)
 Obama’s
Changes
 •  Adopts
uniform
federal
standards
to
regulate
 both
fuel
economy
and
greenhouse
gas
emissions
 •  Preserves
the
legal
authoriFes
of
DOT,
EPA
and
 California.

 •  Covers
model
year
2012
to
model
year
2016
 •  Requires
an
average
fuel
economy
standard
of
 35.5
miles
per
US
gallon
in
2016

 •  39
miles
per
gallon
for
cars
and
30
mpg
for
 trucks)

 •  Current
average
for
all
vehicles
of
25
miles
per
 gallon.
 How
Did
This
Happen?
 Supported
by
10
car
companies
and
the
UAW
 Provides
certainty
and
predictability
to
2016.

 Reduces
the
cost
of
compliance.

 Does
not
dictate
the
size
of
cars,
trucks
and
SUVs.
 Applies
efficiency
standards
to
all
sizes
of
vehicles.
 Creates
a
single
na:onal
policy
for
all
automakers.
 Replaces
current
three
standards
(DOT,
EPA,
a
 California
standard,
also
applying
to
13
other
states).

 •  Offers
clarity,
predictability
and
certainty
concerning
 the
rules.

 •  Gives
firms
flexibility
on
how
to
meet
the
expected
 outcomes
and
the
lead
Fme
they
need
to
innovate.
 •  •  •  •  •  •  •  
Many
Americans
believe
that
we
 “can’t
really
save
much
oil,
or
energy,

 without
massive
technological
 change.”
 
Oh,
really?
 Some
Basic
Consump:on
Facts,
U.S.
 •  Total
U.S.
Oil
consumpFon 
 
20.8
mbd
 •  TransportaFon
share: 
 
 
 
~2/3
 •  Oil
imports 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13.5
mbd
 What
a
Shix
to
Hybrids
Would
Do
 •  Savings
of
oil,

 
Prius
vs
average
for
fleet: 
 
54%,
or
7.5
mbd

 •  That’s
36%
of
total
consump:on
and
55%
of
 total
imports.
 •  Savings
of
oil,
plug‐ins: 
 
64%
or
8.8
mbd
 •  That’s
42%
of
total
consump:on
and
65%
of
US
 imports.
 •  By
way
of
comparison:
Total
Saudi
oil
exports
 2007
were
8.9
mbd
 What
Is
Possible:
Right
Now!
 Hybrids:
A
First
Step
 Geyng
Bener
 How
Did
They
Do
This?
 •  Toyota—in
consultaFon
with
Japanese
 government—decided
to
make
a
car
with
 much
higher
fuel
efficiency
(1992).
 •  Formed
small
team
of
engineers,
 •  Which
eventually
grew
to
a
team
of
over
 1,000,
 •  Who
produced
over
80
full
designs
that
failed,
 unFl
finally
produced
the
actual
design
(1996).
 •  Key: Manager insisted on doubling mileage. Test
Period
 •  Sales
began
in
Japan,
December,
1997.
 •  Only
sold
in
Japan
unFl
mid‐2000.
 •  A
test
period:
puyng
the
car
in
the
hands
of
 some
of
the
world’s
most
demanding
and
 discriminaFng
consumers:
the
Japanese
 public.
 •  Used
the
period
to
gain
further
informaFon
 and
correct
design
flaws.
 U.S.
Hybrid
Sales
 A
Long
Way
to
Go
 The
Difference
Efficiency
Could
Make
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/12/2010 for the course ENVS 141 taught by Professor Richard during the Fall '09 term at UCSC.

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