Chapter 1 - Chapter 1 Chapter One Thinking Critically with...

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Chapter 1 Chapter One: Thinking Critically with Psychological Science - Introduction - I: Need for psychological Science - II: Descriptive Research - III: Correlation Research - IV: Experimental Research - V: Statistical Reasoning - VI. FAQ about Psychology Introduction Psychology is a science that studies behaviour, and mental processes. We study how we think, we feel, and behave. Everything about humanities. It’s exciting, fun, it’s a science! Scope: Psychology is beyond therapy. Every single aspect of life you can think of, psychology is involved. Psychologist are either doing research or using psychological methods. Microsoft hires psychologist to design websites because of perception. Armies hire psychologists , cognitive psychologists, sound perceptions, mine sweepers. Transportation systems (planes, trains) hired to investigate why the plane crashes. Psychologist are hired to investigate human error. I. Need for psychological Science A. Why? A.1 Limits of Intuition (Why do you we need science?) Intuition, as important, as valuable, can lead to error in our judgment. Can be misleading; take us down the wrong path, that’s why we need science. Listen to intuition but we still need science. A.2 Limits of common Sense The problem with common sense is: it comes after the fact. The result of experience develops as a result of knowledge and experience. It comes AFTER. That’s why we can’t use it. We have to go through experience, learn from it, then we can use common sense towards similar situations. Result of knowledge, rather than the generator of knowledge. Hindsight bias (I knew it all along phenomenon): (ex: sept 11) our tendency as human beings, once we know all the facts about the situation, all there is to know, know how to end it, the conclusion, know everything, then the conclusion is very evident to us. (I 1
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Chapter 1 knew it all along..!) When we don’t know the conclusion, we don’t know all the facts, it’s not evident/apparent. Nobody knew the buildings were about to collapse. A.3 Overconfidence Refers to our tendency as our human beings, to overestimate how accurate our knowledge is. WE over estimate our judgments and knowledge. We are higher about our certainty than our knowledge. “there is no reason for anyone to have a computer in their home” “heaver than air flying machines are impossible” “we know on the authority of Moses, that longer ago than 6000 years, the world did not exist” “Man will never reach the moon, regardless of all future ..” << ALL WERE EXPERTS, OVERCONFIDENT OVERCONFIDENCE AND THE AVG PERSON: studies in the US, gave 100 q to answer, every answer starts with 98% certain… (factual questions) im 98 percent certain so their answer is 98/100.. certainty is above accuracy. A.4 Illusory correlation Our tendency as our human beings to see relationships, associations, between variables where none exist. Ex: U think my bf is having an affair, when he isn’t. black cats are bad luck. Every time I think about jack, I get an email from him. We see a relationship when there’s none, it’s just a coincidence.
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