Chapter 2 - 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Neuroscience and...

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Chapter 2: Neuroscience and Behaviour Nervous System β Endocrine system The Nervous System I. Function and Structure - Complex communication network that is going to direct and control the movement of the body in the world > It receives sensory information from the physical world > organizes and integrates information with already existing information and integrates it in a useful way > uses this information to send out messages to muscles and glands in order to create behaviours and movements - Conscious experience (awareness of who we are and the world around us) It has two major divisions: CNS: central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) & PNS: peripheral nervous system (all the nerves in the body that are outside of the CNS) Any of the simplest movements requires those two divisions to work together. II. Neurons (basic unit of communication, 1 trillion neurons in body and all connected together in complex in highly way) A. Basic function & structure of neurons - 3 basic types: > sensory neurons: collect sensory info and send to CNS > motor neurons: carry msgs from the CNS to the muscles and glands > interneurons: found only in CNS, carry info between neurons, most complex job to organize and integrade info and outnumber the sensory and motor neurons - Basic structure (neurons come in variety of shapes and sizes, there’s a basic structure that’s common to most of them) > cell body-> soma, cell body (manifacture whatever the nurons need to grow and survive and develop, involved in communcations between neurons, receives msgs from other nuerons) > dendrites: thing tube like extensions from the soma, they increase the surface area of the soma and they receive info from other neurons > axon: thing tube like structure, carry info between neurons, transmit info, bc when a neuron fires, it produces electrical pulses, the axon carries that electrical pulse >myelin sheath: SOME axons are covered with myelin sheat, white fatty like substance, it covers some of the axons, it’s going to insulate and makes the transmission of the electrical pulses much faster, (20x faster) (Multiple syrosis: myelin sheath becomes eroded ) 1
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> axon branches: neuron can have thousands of them, >terminal buttons or axon terminals: tiny little nobs, release the neuro transmitter >Synapse: place where neurons meet to communicate and exchange information >synaptic cleft or synaptic gap: the little distance between neurons at the synapse >presynaptic neuron: neuron that is sending the msg >postsynaptic neuron: neuron that is receiving the msg B. Communication B.1 Communication within a neuron - brain: 80% water (found both inside and outside neurons) - intracellular fluid: water inside neuron - extracellular fluid: water outside neuron - water that has dissolved chemicals including: sodium ions, chloride ions, potassium ions (ion: molecule that has an electric charge). . they’re found both inside and outside but in different concentrations. The concentration of the ions will change and vary depending on what’s going on with the neurons. Protein ions (a-) are only found inside.
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Chapter 2 - 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Neuroscience and...

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