Chapter 8 - Chapter 8: Learning I. Intro II. Classical...

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Chapter 8: Learning I. Intro II. Classical Conditioning III. Operant Conditioning IV. Learning by Observation I. Intro - Learning: very broad definition, does not only depend on academic learning; a relatively permanent change in behaviour and mental processes as a result of experience. - Conditioning: Learning to make association - Adaptability & flexibility: our ability to learn makes us this. When nature doesn’t give us, we learned how to make up for that - Learning can be either a force of evil or good - With learning there is hope, with learning there is unlearn II. Classical Conditioning Intro: we learn to associate two events or two stimuli (Ex. When there is lighting, thunder will follow). One event is signaling the occurrence of the other event. We can prepare for the consequences of the occurring event. A. Pavlov’s Experiments - He was studying dog’s salvation and noticed that if the dogs saw him or his associates, the dogs would salivate and he called this psychic secretion. He hypothesized that the dog is associating the footsteps with food. - He spend 30 years of his life on studying learning and left studying the digestive system - He put food (unconditioned stimulus UCS) in the dog’s mouth and it would salivate (unconditioned response UCR) - Rang a bell (neutral stimulus) and no salvation - Bell (conditioned stimulus CS) & food and there’s salivation (conditioned response) … keep repeating - The dog learned to associate bell & food - Black boots (neutral stimulus) 1
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- Nude partner (UCS) -> sexual arousal (UCR) - Black boots + nude partner -> sexual arousal - Black boots (CS) -> sexual arousal (CR) A.1 Acquisition - Timing is super important. You cannot sound the bell at seven in the morning and give the food at 11 in the morning. You have to present them closely to each other in time. Half a second to a few seconds in general. - Order of presentation. You must always present the condition stimulus first, followed by the unconditioned stimulus. Bell first then food. A.2 Extinction & Spontaneous Recovery - Can we extinguish the response? - Bell + Food -> Salivation - Bell -> Salvation - Bell + No food x50 = No salvation - You stop pairing the conditioned stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus, it’s going to appear to disappear - Spontaneous recovery: it’s possible sometime in the future if he hears the bell, he’d salivate A.3 Generalization - One breed of dog bites you and you become afraid of all dogs - You are producing the conditional response to stimuli that are similar to the condition stimulus - Can be adaptive and maladaptive - Adaptive: hunter in Africa, first time hunting… you meet a panther and soon enough you find out that a panther is dangerous and can kill you. Generalize all big cats are dangerous.
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This note was uploaded on 01/13/2010 for the course PSY psy1101 taught by Professor Haddad during the Spring '09 term at University of Ottawa.

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Chapter 8 - Chapter 8: Learning I. Intro II. Classical...

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