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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 12: Motivation and Work I. Motivation concepts I I. Hunger I I I. Sexual Motivation IV. The Need to Belong V. Motivation at Work I. Motivation Concepts Motivation directs and energizes your behaviour A. Instinct & Evolutionary Psychology Instincts motivates behaviour , unlearned, every species has its own kind of instincts and will perform it in the same way Evolution prepared us to engage in behaviours that are going to help us survive and thrive; however, there was a problem with this theory, every single human behaviour became an instinct B. Drive & Incentives According to drive, we have biological needs (water, food, oxygen, sex) and when they are not met, that creates a state of tension inside of us and that state is very uncomfortable, so we are driven an internal push towards satisfying that interneal need. PUSH US. Incentives; defiantly we have a biological need, however, there are other things that can explain human behaviour. Ther eare lots of things that attracts us and pull us towards them (ex. Good grades). PULL US. C. Optimum Arousal: There is a level of arousal that is optimal to us, where we function well. Based on it, if it drops below it, we are motivated to do something to bring the level of arousal back up. If it becomes high, we become uncomfortable and do whatever it takes to bring it back to the level. Not too hyper and not too low and it will vary from one person to the other. IT explains the behaviour of sensational seekers. D. A hierarchy of Motives (Maslow) We also have psychological needs that motivates us to do things and that both biological and psychological needs are important. The needs at the bottom of the hierarchy at the bottom must be met first. Physiological needs (water/food) > safety needs (shelter) > Love needs > self-esteem needs (value/confidence) > self-actualization (you develop your potential and living in line with it) Every single theory from above help us understand the human motivation, none of them individually help us understand the human motivation. II. Hunger A. The physiology of Hunger- Empty stomach? There is a relationship between growling and stomach contraction and hunger.- No stomach? Continue to feel hungry and desire to eat. - Body chemistry & brain: - glucose levels: when they go down, we get hungry- Ghrelin: hunger hormone, when it increases we get hungry - Pyy: when it decreases, hungry CCK: surpress hunger, lower levels, - Leptin: hormon released by fat in body. Your brain is constancy monotring the levels, the more body bad fat yo have, the more leptin gets released. When levels are high, this means that were too fat bring them down by increasing metabolism. If they are too low, we do the opposite, conserve energy to gain more fat on bodies....
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- Spring '09
- Evolutionary Psychology