EVS1101%20Lecture%2002%20Mineral%20resources

EVS1101%20Lecture%2002%20Mineral%20resources - The...

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EVS1101, Winter 2010 1 Resources Mines Energy Soils The Lithosphere Resources Physical resources essential to sustain life are limited, with the exception of solar energy A sustainable economic system would operate without a net consumption of natural resources, i.e., the rates of resource use would equal or be smaller that the rates at which they are regenerated or re- cycled There are renewable and non-renewable resources Non-renewable resources Non-renewable resources are present in finite quantity Extraction of resources: metals, fossil fuels, coal, etc. (development of new extraction tools) The recycling of resources is essential The use of alternative sources of energy (e.g. use of biomass, solar panels, wind, etc.)
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EVS1101, Winter 2010 2 Renewable resources Capable of being regenerated after harvesting, they could be used forever E.g. animals, plants, soils, water, solar energy A renewable source of energy can be degraded in the long term or contaminated or over-utilized E.g. Easter Island (Rapa Nui) Easter Island (Rapa Nui) Remote island in S. Pacific 1772, European explorers reached island, finding barren landscape, <2000 people But evidence of sophisticated earlier civilization of ~30,000 Resource over-exploitation Trees felled (statues, canoes) Top-soil erosion, lower freshwater (enhanced run-off), poorer crop yields Lessons for our planet Resource management Crops, animal stocks, forests can be harvested sustainability with proper practices Need to maintain a healthy environment Need to maintain a good genetic diversity Need to avoid over-exploitation Human factors can influence the size and productivity of natural resources
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EVS1101, Winter 2010 3 Rocks and minerals Mineral Building blocks of rocks “…inorganic chemical compounds that have specific composition, orderly internal atomic structure and characteristic physical properties“ E.g. Silicates, oxides, carbonates, sulfides, sulfates, etc Rock Aggregate of different minerals No specific chemical composition E.g. granite, basalt, limestone etc Nine elements comprise ~99% of crust by weight (w/w) Trace concentrations of remaining elements Elements not evenly distributed Composition of the crust Element % (w/w) O 45 Si 27 Al 8.4 Fe 7.1 Ca 5.3 Mg 3.2 Na 2.3 K 0.90 Ti 0.50 Non-renewable resources Metals, salts, rocks (granite, marble, etc.) Ore extraction technique can improve our recovery and extend the resources Essential for the economy of Canada and the world 3.3% of GDP; 2.5% direct employed (2008) The mining industry creates jobs and infrastructure (roads, power lines, etc.) Often associated with major environmental problems Mining activity in Canada Concentrated in northern Ontario, Quebec, southern SK/western MB
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EVS1101, Winter 2010 4 Mining activities Canada is one of the world’s largest mineral
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This note was uploaded on 01/13/2010 for the course EVS EVS1101 taught by Professor Collins during the Spring '09 term at University of Ottawa.

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EVS1101%20Lecture%2002%20Mineral%20resources - The...

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