Unformatted text preview: Welcome to PSY 2105 H Child Development Instructor: David Collins, Ph.D. 1 Today’s lecture (05/01/10) Overview of course outline Lecture (a wee bit) defining development early theorists 2 Course outline Will be available through course website i.e., virtual campus 3 Chapter 1
Background and Theories 4 All that is valuable in human All society depends upon the opportunity for development opportunity accorded the individual. 5 What Is Developmental Psychology? Developmental psychology is concerned with changes in behaviour and abilities across the lifespan Goals of developmental psychology: Description: Identify children’s behaviour at various developmental points Explanation: Determine the causes and processes that govern developmental change
6 Why Study Children? Childhood is a period of rapid change physical, cognitive, social, and emotional Early experiences may be critical in influencing later adult development Research on children is useful for understanding complex adult behaviors (?) Research on children has realworld applications (e.g., teaching) Children are interesting
7 Materialism and Empiricism Materialism Thomas Hobbes (15881679) soul is meaningless nothing exists but matter and energy human behaviour understood in terms of physical processes in the body, especially the brain conscious thought is product of brain 8 Materialism and Empiricism Empiricism John Locke influenced by Hobbes’ work all human knowledge and thought derives from sensory experience ideas not innately present thought is not product of free will, but a reflection of one’s experience 9 Early Theorists John Locke (16321704) Argued that children gain knowledge through experience and learning Environmentalist point of view: children are products of their environment and upbringing “Tabula rasa”: The mind is a blank slate at birth; this suggests that The mind is a blank slate at birth; this suggests that all behaviours are learned JeanJacques Rousseau (17121778) Argued that children are born with innate knowledge that drives development (nativism)
10 Early Theorists Johann Gottried Von Herder (17441803) Examining and evaluating the specifics of a culture is crucial to understanding human development (cultural relativism) Charles Darwin (18091882) Developed concept of “natural selection” in which traits that confer advantages allow the organism to survive Theory gave rise to concept of recapitulation Employed early baby biography research method 11 See you on Thursday! 12 Today’s lecture (07/01/10) Chapter 1 (con’t) Pioneers of child psy Issues in dev psy Theories of dev Cogdev Sociocultural Env/learning Evolutionary/bio 13 Recap Early theorists Locke Rousseau Von Herder Darwin 14 Pioneers of Child Psychology G. Stanley Hall Referred to as the father of child psychology Founded the field of developmental psychology First Canadian academic psychologist to study development James Mark Baldwin 15 Pioneers of Child Psychology John B. Watson Arnold Gesell Focused research on observable behaviour; proposed a behaviourist theory of development Focused on maturational processes Produced agerelated norms for development 16 Pioneers of Child Psychology Sigmund Freud Focused attention on early childhood experiences Proposed a fivestage theory of psychosexual development: children are born with innate sexual energy, termed libido At various stages of development, libido is focused within certain bodily regions called erogenous zones Stimulation of these regions results in pleasure and gratification Stages include: oral, anal, phallic, latent, and genital Children move from stage to stage; failure to do so results in being fixated within a stage 17 Pioneers of Child Psychology Sigmund Freud Freud’s theory of child development = a theory of personality formation Inappropriate childhood experiences cause a child to become fixated (stuck) in the earlier stage This fixation will manifest itself in later adult behaviour Most complex stage—phallic; Gives rise to Oedipus complex, repression, and identification 18 Pioneers of Child Psychology Sigmund Freud First developmental theorist to propose that development represents an interaction between biological systems and environmental influences (interactionist perspective) Suggested that early childhood experiences are critical for adulthood Freud spurred others to test his theories and to develop their own theories 19 Erik Erikson Pioneers of Child Psychology
Expanded Freud’s stages; proposed an eightstage model Focused on social and cultural influences on development (psychosocial model) Age (years) Birth to 1.5 1.5 to 3 3 to 6 6 to 2 12 to 18 Young adult Adult Stage of Development Basic trust vs. Mistrust Autonomy vs. Shame Initiative vs. Guilt Industry vs. Inferiority Identity vs. Role confusion Intimacy vs. Isolation Generativity vs. Stagnation
20 Reflection questions 21 Why does a child become a juvenile delinquent? Will a child be noticeably different at 9 from the way he or she was at 6? Why or why not? Which is the most accurate statement, and why? Children are basically the same the world over. or The most interesting thing about children is how different each one is. 22 Issues in Developmental Psychology NATURE vs. NURTURE Does developmental change occur primarily due to biological factors or environmental factors? CONTINUITY vs. DISCONTINUITY Is developmental change smooth and constant (continuous) or stagelike (discontinuous)? NORMATIVE vs. IDIOGRAPHIC Is the focus of the researcher on universals of development (normative) or on individual differences (idiographic)? 23 Theories of Development Developmental psychologists align themselves with specific theoretical approaches Cognitivedevelopmental approach Sociocultural approach Environmental/learning approach Evolutionary and biological approach 24 Cognitive-Developmental Approaches: Piaget’s Theory Piaget was a biologist with strong interests in how children acquire knowledge The nature of children’s knowledge changes as they develop Schemes the cognitive structures that are used to understand the world reflect an object in the environment and the child’s reaction to that object 25 Cognitive-Developmental Approaches: Piaget’s Theory Development is the reorganization of knowledge into more complex schemes Two functions guide cognitive development Organization: New knowledge must be merged with old knowledge Adaptation: The survival of an organism depends on its ability to fit with the environment 26 Cognitive-Developmental Approaches: Piaget’s Theory Cognitive adaptation is promoted by Assimilation: Making sense of new information using existing schemes Accommodation: Changing the existing schemes to fit with new information 27 Cognitive-Developmental Approaches: Piaget’s Stages of Development Children move through four stages Sensorimotor period: Birth through age 2 Preoperational period: Age 2 to 6 Infant schemes are simple reflexes and knowledge reflects interactions with people and objects Child begins to use symbols (words, numbers) to represent the world cognitively 28 Cognitive-Developmental Approaches: Piaget’s Stages of Development Piaget’s four stages (cont’d) Concrete operations: Age 6 to 11 Child performs mental operations and logical problem solving Child can use formal problem solving and higher level abstract thinking Formal operations: Age 12 through adulthood 29 Cognitive-Developmental Approaches: Cognitive-Developmental Information-Processing Models Information-Processing Human cognitive processes are similar to the operations of computers Cognition is a system formed of three parts Sensory input Information processing Behavioural output Specific cognitive processes and corresponding developmental stages
30 The Sociocultural Approach: The Vygotsky’s Theory Vygotsky’s Vygotsky was a product of a Marxist environment, which emphasized socialism and collectivism Individual cognitive development is a product of cultural influences Thinking and problem solving are tools of intellectual adaptation Through guided interactions with more experienced members of society, children learn problemsolving (dialectical process) which leads to internalization
31 The Sociocultural Approach: The Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Approach Bronfenbrenner’s Bronfenbrenner’s perspective: Development occurs perspective: Development occurs within broader social and cultural environment An understanding of development involves an understanding of the interaction of child’s characteristics and child’s environment (transactional influence) Proposed five systems: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, chronosystem 32 The Sociocultural Approach: The Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Approach Bronfenbrenner’s
Figure 1.1 Bronfenbrenner’s Bronfenbrenner’s ecological ecological model of the model environment. environment. 33 Environmental/Learning Approaches Explain how a child’s experiences interact with biological processes to produce development Behaviour psychology relies heavily on learning theory to explain development does not invoke unseen cognitive processes to explain development 34 Environmental/Learning Approaches Human behaviour is acquired rather than inborn Learning refers to a relatively permanent change in behaviour that results from practice or experience Definition excludes transitory changes such as exhaustion or drug actions Learning is reflected in observable behaviour Learning is not due to biological maturation 35 Environmental/Learning Approaches B.F. Skinner focused on two distinct forms of learning: Respondent: Environmental stimuli elicit reflexive responses (salivation response to a steak) Operant: The impact of voluntary behaviours on the environment Operant behaviours are controlled by their effects Child places a quarter in a candy machine and the machine delivers 30 candy bars rather than one; the child is more likely to place a quarter in that machine on the next occasion 36 Types of Learning Habituation: the decline of a reflex response after repeated elicitation Classical conditioning: a form of learning in which a neutral stimulus is paired with a reflexive stimulus; after several pairings, the neutral stimulus now elicits a response Operant learning: a form of learning in which behaviour changes as a result of reinforcers or punishers 37 Reinforcement, Punishment and Extinction reinforcement punishment extinction
F 5.10 38 Basic Components of the Classical Conditioning Procedure 39 Operant Conditioning vs. CC CC learn relations between one stimulus and another Operant conditioning learn relations between environmental stimuli and one’s own behaviour 40 Little Albert http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xt0ucxOrPQE&featu http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=LVJMhk4oANM&feature=related 41 Social-Learning Theory Bandura added the concept of observational learning to environmental/learning theory Observational Learning: Children learn by observing models and, as a result, experience vicarious punishment or vicarious reinforcement Children imitate their models http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vdh7MngntnI Human development involves an interaction between a person’s characteristics and behaviour with the environment (reciprocal determinism)
42 Social-Learning Theory
Bandura’s Theory of Observational Learning Figure 1.2 Bandura’s model of observational learning.
43 Social-Learning Theory
Reciprocal Determinism Figure 1.3 Bandura’s model of reciprocal determinism. determinism. 44 Evolutionary and Biological Approaches The focus of ethology is on the role of evolutionary processes in development Ethology suggests two determinants of behaviour Immediate environmental and internal states Evolutionary determinants refer to the idea that behaviours are functional and that certain behaviours may have conferred evolutionary advantages to an animal, allowing it to survive and reproduce 45 Classical Ethology Ethologists argue that innate behaviours Are universal to all members of the species Require no learning or experience Are stereotyped (similar form) Are minimally affected by the environment “Sensitive periods” are periods during which learning is biologically programmed to occur easily Imprinting refers to the emotional bonds formed by young members of a species with their mothers (e.g. Lorenz’s ducklings) 46 Applications of Ethological Theory Bowlby’s observations on institutionalized infants supported the idea that close motherinfant bond (attachment) is crucial to survival of young Sociobiology – examines genetic effects on social behaviour Evolutionary Development Psychology proposes that our current characteristics are a result of adaptational challenges Development = attributes that promote survival; natural selection 47 Ch 1 Learning Objectives Learning Objective 1.1 Understand the philosophical and historical roots of child psychology. Learning Objective 1.2 How can we understand the influences of nature and nurture, stability and change, and uniformity and variation on child development? Learning Objective 1.3 Describe two major theories of cognitive development. 48 Ch 1 Learning Objectives Learning Objective 1.4 Describe the sociocultural approach to Development Learning Objective 1.5 Describe how environmental/learning approaches explain development. Learning Objective 1.6 Understand evolutionary and biological approaches to development.
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This note was uploaded on 01/13/2010 for the course PSY psy2105 taught by Professor Brenda during the Spring '09 term at University of Ottawa.
- Spring '09