Aug11_09 - 8/11/09 Social Psychology The study of social...

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1 Psych 1 Principles of Psychology Dr. Emiliana Simon-Thomas 8/11/09 Social Psychology The study of social behavior, including how people influence and are influenced by other people. Social perception and cognition : the processes we use to gather and remember information about others and to make inferences from that information. Includes, among other processes, sensation, attention, memory and thinking. Social Psychology First Impressions : the primacy effect applied to people. Our first impressions weight our future attention, perception, and interpretation of other people; we interpret new information to fit into the framework of our first impression. Self-fulfilling prophecy – when our expectations make us behave in a way that increases the probability that our expectation will be met. Stereotypes : general belief or expectation about a group of people. Often emerge from distinct observations (consider this with respect to individuals that grow up in homogenous communities). Often are exaggerated. May be accurate, but this does mean they are applicable to all individuals. Social Psychology Prejudice : an overly generalized, unfavorable attitude towards a group. Usually associated with discrimination. Prejudice rationalizes inequity; they get less because they are less worthy. Subtle prejudice/aversive racism Ambivalent sexism Have been measured with the IAT test . Overcoming prejudice Mere exposure, I.e. getting to know each other. Common goals (Sherif’s Robber’s Cave boys camp experiment). Social Psychology Attribution : assigning causes to our own and other peoples’ behavior. Internal attribution : you do it because its just part of who you are (dispositional). External attribution : you do it because of the circumstance (situational). When do we make internal vs. external attributions? We tend to make internal attributions when someone’s behavior is ‘extraordinary’ or ‘unfamiliar’, I.e. most people would not do this. We tend to make external attributions when someone’s behavior is ‘normal’ or ‘expected’. Howard Kelley formalized 3 thought processes that we use to determine whether the make an internal vs. an external attribution: consensus information (like others?), consistency information (over time), distinctiveness (between situations). Social Psychology Attribution : assigning causes to our own and other peoples’ behavior. The Fundamental Attribution Error : (a.k.a. the correspondence bias) We tend to make internal (dispositional) attributions (for the causes of others’ behaviors) despite being presented with evidence for external (situational) attribution.
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Aug11_09 - 8/11/09 Social Psychology The study of social...

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