July14_09 - 07/14/09 Developmental Psychology The...

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1 Psych 1 Principles of Psychology Dr. Emiliana Simon-Thomas 07/14/09 Developmental Psychology The scientific study of human development seeks to understand how and why people – all kinds of people everywhere – change, and also how they do not change, from conception until death. • Studies universal & unique qualities. • Perspective is multidirectional (change occurs in every direction – not just in a line), multicontextual (different life circumstances, historical ( cohort ), SES, etc. .), multicultural (values, traditions, ethnic group), multidisciplinary (biology, sociology, neuroscience, anthropology, economics, history, Genetic Principles All living things are made up of tiny cells Cells manufacture proteins according to instructions stored in DNA Developmental Psychology The molecules of DNA are chromosomes , which contain all of the instructions. Altogether, the packet of instructions is the individual’s genome . Each cell has 46 chromosomes (23 pairs), each chromosome in organized into units called genes . The human genome – about 30,000 genes. Developmental Psychology Reproduction Male and female gametes each contain 23 chromosomes (1/2 as many as other bodily cells). When the sperm penetrates the ovum, it migrates towards the ovum’s nucleus, their nuclei fuse, and thus become a zygote . This genetic info, 23 chromosomes from mom and 23 from dad constitute an individual’s genotype . Most genes pair up well, except the 23 rd . Dad’s cells have XY and mom’s cells have XX. Therefore, ova always have an X at 23, and sperms have an X ½ the time and a Y ½ the time. The sex of the offspring: XX at 23 - girl, XY at 23 - boy. Twins: Identical/Monozygotic (one zygote splits) vs. Fraternal/Dizygotic (two ova, two zygotes) Comparing mono and dizygotic twins is useful a useful method for investigating genetic contributions to development. Developmental Psychology Developmental Psychology Genetic Principles Genotype and Phenotype Homozygous vs. Heterozygous gene status. Most traits are multifactorial and polygenetic: additive genes & nonadditive genes , I.e. the dominant-recessive pattern. Sex-linked genes/X-linked genes : males are more susceptible, I.e. colorblindness. Sex-limited genes: e.g. secondary sex characteristics. Genetic diversity & variation: crossing-over, mutation.
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2 Developmental Psychology Genetic Principles Does a difference in behavior or outcome depend more on differences in genetic make-up or differences in environment? Heritability is an estimate of the variance in a population that is due solely to heredity. – measured from 0 to 1.
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This note was uploaded on 01/13/2010 for the course PSYCH 1 taught by Professor Shimamura during the Summer '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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July14_09 - 07/14/09 Developmental Psychology The...

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