July21_09 - 7/21/09 A relatively permanent change in an...

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1 Psych 1 Principles of Psychology Dr. Emiliana Simon-Thomas 7/21/09 Learning: A relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience. Behaviorism The approach to Psychology which involves discovering observable cause-and-effect relationships between conditions and behavior. Aims to decode the ‘basic laws of behavior’. Assumes a deterministic perspective, avoids mental/anthropomorphic terms and emphasizes the influence of the environment. Learning Associative learning We link together events/experiences that have some kind of association such that you can predict one from the other: • temporal sequence, they happen close in time. • meaning, they represent the same thing. • function, they serve the same function. • salience, they share the same emotional significance. Lightning thunder A excellent Bank teller ATM 9/11 WMD Habituation The simplest kind of learning The decline in an organisms tendency to respond to a stimulus once the Learning Dr. Ivan Pavlov (1839-1946) Described ‘psychic salivations’ that dogs would show in his digestion research (for which he was awarded a Nobel prize), Realized that it was interesting and dedicated his time to studying how dogs developed this behavior Learning Classical/Pavlovian Conditioning Describe/operationally define the components of the original stimulus- response contingency: The stimulus: food is the Unconditioned Stimulus (US) because it elicits an unlearned, or reflexive response. The instinctive response to a stimulus: salivation is the Unconditioned Reflex (UR), because it automatically happens when food is introduced into the mouth. Learning Classical/Pavlovian Conditioning Describe the incidental or neutral associated stimulus: A bell ring, an irrelevant auditory stimulus is operationally defined as the Neutral Stimulus (NS) because it has nothing to do with food or salivation. Carry out the training procedure: Ring the bell (NS) right before the food (US) is introduced into the mouth at every feeding time.
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2 Learning Classical/Pavlovian Conditioning Observe the new behavioral response to the formerly neutral stimulus: The dogs generate the formerly UR, salivation, in response to the bell ring, the conditioned stimulus (CS). Salivation in response to the bell ring is the conditioned response (CR). Learning
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July21_09 - 7/21/09 A relatively permanent change in an...

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