July29_09 - Psych 1 Principles of Psychology Dr Emiliana Simon-Thomas Motivation Motivation is the need desire or drive that energizes behavior and

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1 Psych 1 Principles of Psychology Dr. Emiliana Simon-Thomas 07/29/09 Motivation is the need, desire or drive that energizes behavior and directs it towards a goal. – Motivated behaviors persist until the goal is reached. – Motivated behaviors vary over time and between individuals. Motivation Why do we have motivation and what biological systems support it? Instinct : Genetically predisposed complex unlearned behaviors that are rigid throughout a species? – Rooting reflex? Sucking reflex? – Boasting (self-assertion instinct?) Cooking? (flavor seeking instinct?). Note the circularity of this explanation. Motivation Drive reduction : animals strive to reduce their drives (states of unrest or irritation that energize one behavior after another until one of them removes the irritation) as much as possible. Drive-reducing behaviors (eating, drinking) Need (e.g., for food, water) Drive (hunger, thirst) What happens when all your needs are met, hypothetically? Couch potatodom? Not always. Rather, people seek out active stimulating experiences. Can external things affect motivation? Yes. Homeostasis : The maintenance of optimal biological conditions: the balanced internal state. Drives arise to facilitate behavior that will promote and maintain an impossible-to-ever-achieve equilibrium. Temperature control involves maintaining an optimal setpoint, or target value for temperature. Motivation PNS: somatic division, autonomic nervous system Governed in part by the hypothalamus , which has a group of cells that detect when the body is too hot or too cold, and promote internal and external adjustments. Temperature control, or thermoregulation Motivation But human motivated behaviors can sometimes reflect efforts to achieve homeostasis in a predictive/anticipatory fashion.
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2 Incentives : External stimuli, conditions or circumstances that influence the extent to which drives motivate behavior. Motivation Most motivated behaviors are controlled by a combination of drives and incentives. You eat because you are hungry and also because you are standing in front of a restaurant offering appealing sights and smells of food and because you know you might not be near another place to eat for several hours. What about motivated behaviors that don’t really map onto a homeostatic need, i.e. wolfing down 5 hot chocolate chip cookies? Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Intrinsic: doing an act for its own sake. Extrinsic: based on the reinforcements and punishments that may follow an action. Most motivated behaviors result from a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. The
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This note was uploaded on 01/13/2010 for the course PSYCH 1 taught by Professor Shimamura during the Summer '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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July29_09 - Psych 1 Principles of Psychology Dr Emiliana Simon-Thomas Motivation Motivation is the need desire or drive that energizes behavior and

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