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Unformatted text preview: 1/ what is biotechnology? Biotechnology is any technique that uses organisms or substances from those organisms, to make or modify a product, to improve plants or animals, or to develop microorganisms for specific uses. 2/ Biotechnology studies- The tools and techniques include fermentation, recombinant DNA techniques, bioconversion, propagation ….- The targets comprise living microorganism, plant, animal, or products of those organisms ….- Biotechnology is multidisciplinary, involving a variety of the natural sciences – cell, molecular biology, microbiology, genetics, physiology, and biochemistry, to name only the major areas – as well as engineering and computer science 3/ Applications of biotechnology- Industry: production of industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals… - Agriculture: production of new and improved food (develop virus –resistant crop plant, high nutrient live stock…)- Environment: protecting endanger species, cleaning up toxic waste from industrial and oil spills- Health: diagnostics for detecting genetic disease (Huntington’s chorea, AIDS…), therapies that use gene to cure diseases (ADA deficiency…), recombinant vaccine… 4/ Stages of biotechnology development Ancient biotechnology: the history of domestication and agriculture. Starting from gathering and storing food, people had settled down the society and developed the earliest techniques for food reparation. Ex: Corn cobs demonstrating the evolutionary changes from about 5000 BC to about 1500 AD. All samples were found during excavations in the Techuacan Valley, Mexico, under the auspices of the Robert S. Peabody Foundation for Archaeology Classical biotechnology: built on ancient biotechnology with development of fermentation firstly for food production. Classical biotechnology now is applied in many areas in industry for either food or chemical production. 5/ Foundations of modern biotechnology Microscopy - By the advent of microscopy (first made in 1590) by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek the science has been revolutionized with clear description of microorganism.- By 1665, microscopes was widely used when Robert Hooke examined the structure of thinly sliced cork under the microscope and he draw what he observed. - Structure of number of microorganisms have been uncovered by increase of microscope’s magnification Cell theory: - Tissues were composed of cells- These cell could divide to generate more cells Cell is living, functioning unit. By the early 1880s, with the improvement of microscopes, tissue preservation techniques and stains, scientists made significant advances in the understanding of cell structure and function. 6/ Nature of the gene 1. Gene determines the structure of protein....
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- Spring '09
- DNA, DNA fragments, DNA DNA, DNA polymerase DNA