me_350_-_lect_10b_-_ch_12.20090925.4abceef176b294.57266329

me_350_-_lect_10b_-_ch_12.20090925.4abceef176b294.57266329...

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ME 350 – Lecture 10b – Chapter 12 GLASSWORKING Raw Materials Preparation and Melting Shaping Processes in Glassworking Heat Treatment and Finishing Product Design Considerations
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Process Sequence in Glassworking The typical process sequence in glassworking: (1) preparation of raw materials and melting, (2) shaping, and (3) heat treatment.
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Raw Materials Preparation and Melting The principal component in nearly all glasses is silica (SiO 2 ) Other components: – Soda ash (source of Na 2 O), limestone (source of CaO), aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ), and potash (source of K 2 O), Recycled glass is usually added to the mixture, it facilitates: The most popular glass is soda-lime glass (~73% , ~13% , ~10% )
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Glass Melting Starting material to be melted is called a charge , and loading it into the furnace is called charging the furnace Melting temperatures for glass are around 1500 ° C to 1600 ° C (2700 ° F to 2900 ° F) Viscosity of molten glass is related to temperature Temperature of the molten glass depends on the viscosity required for the shaping process
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Shaping Processes in Glassworking Three categories: 1. Discrete processes for piece ware (bottles, jars, plates, light bulbs) 2. Continuous processes for making flat glass (sheet and plate glass) and tubing (laboratory ware, fluorescent lights) 3. Fiber-making processes to produce fibers (for insulation and fiber optics)
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Piece Ware Shaping Processes 1. Spinning – similar to centrifugal casting of metals 2. Pressing – mass production of flat products such as dishes and TV tube faceplates 3. Press-and-blow –production of wide-mouth containers such as jars 4. Blow-and-blow - production of smaller-mouth containers such and light bulbs 5. Casting – large items such as astronomical lenses that must cool slowly to avoid cracking
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1. Spinning Spinning of funnel‑shaped glass parts such as back sections of cathode ray tubes for TVs and computer monitors: (1) gob of glass
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me_350_-_lect_10b_-_ch_12.20090925.4abceef176b294.57266329...

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