DevelopmentW2010.Lecture1notes (1)

DevelopmentW2010.Lecture1notes (1) - Development BIO 120...

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Development BIO 120 Winter 2010 Jeremy Lee Patrick Yuh Eva Murdock Lecture 1 Overview of Development; Model Organisms, Unicellular and Colonial Organisms; Evolution of Developmental Mechanisms I. COURSE OVERVIEW Course Themes The Developmental Process: The development of an organism from a single cell involves an elegant interplay between molecules and between cells, and is influenced by the organism’s interactions with other organisms and the environment. Conservation: There are tremendous and amazing similarities among eukaryotic organisms in the processes by which they develop and in the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes. Variability: Through evolutionary time, natural selection and genetic drift have produced variations on the basic developmental plan of animals, giving rise to the tremendous morphological and physiological variability that we now observe. Outline of Course Topics I. Introduction The Problem of Development Development in Unicellular Organisms Model Organisms for Studying Development Basic Cellular Mechanisms Underlying Development II. Phenomenology of Animal Development Stages of Development Conserved Mechanisms Underlying Development Mechanisms Contributing to Developmental Variability III.Regulation of Cell Differentiation/ Determinants of Cell Fate Genetic Basis of Cell Differentation Transcriptional Regulation Post-transcriptional/Translational Regulation IV. Cellular Interactions in Development/Organogenesis Determinants of Body Axes Cell-to-cell communication in Limb and Organ Development Sex Determination Environmental Influences on Development
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II. OVERVIEW OF DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY Developmental Biology : The study of the processes and mechanisms by which single cells become adult organisms. Problems for Developing Organisms a. Differentiation: production of different specialized cell types b. Morphogenesis: organization of cells into tissues and organs c. Growth: regulation of the number of cell divisions and cell/organ/body size d. Reproduction: production of a new generation and transmission of genetic information e. Response to Environment: non-heritable developmental modifications due to external influences Primary Stages of Development in Animals a. Fertilization : fusion of gametes b. Cleavage : rapid mitotic divisions c. Gastrulation: cell movements and the formation of three primary cell layers d. Organogenesis: cell rearrangement, differentiation, and organization to form tissues, organs e. Maturation/Gametogenesis: differentiation of germ cells, attainment of reproductive capability f. Senescence/Death: decrease/termination of cell, tissue, and organ function III. MODEL ORGANISMS IN DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY General advantages of using model organisms (not applicable to all) Easy, inexpensive to culture Genetic backgrounds easily controlled Rapid generation times; experiments can be completed relatively quickly Highly prolific; large sample sizes easily obtained
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DevelopmentW2010.Lecture1notes (1) - Development BIO 120...

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