Psychology 1X03 Review-1 - UCR CS CR U CS LevelsofAnalysis:...

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UCS CS CR UCR Psychology Review Levels of Analysis:  - 5 Levels; Neuroscience, Learning, Cognition, Social Psychology, Evolution & Development - Neuroscience: biology behind thought/behaviour – brain is our biological core  o Reductionism; everything (action/thought/behaviour) can be reduced to simple chemical  reactions occurring in the brain/nervous system (cannot explain everything) o Neuroimaging; drilling holes in skulls; today 2 main types: structural (how large one area of  the brain is/shows brain damage/bleeding), functional (what is the brain doing?) - Learning: relationships btw cues and behaviour (e.g. classical conditioning) o John B. Watson = Behaviourism Black Box Approach; mind is a black box that takes input and makes output ignoring  inner workings of the mind (neuroscience allows us to study inner workings) - Cognition: interested in internal processes of mind; thought/attention/language/problem-solving o Models; abstract representations of how mind works (e.g. filtering, memory (ST/LT)) Used to explain complex problems/processes and make predictions/experiments No “one” true model’ continuously revised/abandoned through experimentation - Social Psychology: study of relationships btw people o Influence of an individual on a group o Influence of a group on an individual o Influence of groups on each other o Experimentation Methods to understand behaviour: Manipulate variables in artificial situation (e.g. emergency situation) Problem of ethics; causing distress/deception (e.g. Milgram experiment) - Evolution & Development: both study development of certain behaviours 
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o Evolution = development over many generations  Why behaviours developed through history o Development = development of individual over a lifespan  How behaviours developed over lifespan (genetic/environmental factors) o Method of developmental Research Habituation (stimulus + change in stimulus = child’s reaction) Present photo of individual until infant becomes bored and present a new picture; if  infant shows interest, it means they have recognized that the photo is a new  individual   - Case Study: Depression o Neuroscience Chemical Change: depressed chemical balance   drugs   normal chemical balance Physical Change: hippocampus smaller in depressed patients Medications: anti-depressants (reverse abnormalities in hippocampus) o Learning Learned Helplessness; subjects learn that they are unable to escape an unpleasant  situation through repeated trials; depressed patients feel inefficient at escaping negative  circumstances  o Cognition Negative schemas/interpretation of events
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This note was uploaded on 01/15/2010 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 1X03 taught by Professor Kim during the Fall '08 term at McMaster University.

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Psychology 1X03 Review-1 - UCR CS CR U CS LevelsofAnalysis:...

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